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International Journal of Gynecological Cancer (IJGC), the official journal of the International Gynecologic Cancer Society and the European Society of Gynaecological Oncology, is the primary educational and informational publication for topics relevant to detection, prevention, diagnosis, and treatment of gynecologic malignancies. IJGC emphasizes a multidisciplinary approach, and includes original research, reviews, and video articles. The audience consists of gynecologists, medical oncologists, radiation oncologists, radiologists, pathologists, and research scientists with a special interest in gynecological oncology.


Questions?
Contact ijgc@jjeditorial.com

Submission Policies

For guidelines on policy and submission across our journals, please click on the links below:

Authors may find it useful to consult our pre-submission checklist. Please review the article type requirements below and the Author Guide, prior to submitting your manuscript or revision.

Copyright and Licensing
Articles are published under an exclusive licence (or non-exclusive license for UK Crown and US Federal Government employees) and authors retain copyright. Articles can also be published under a Creative Commons license to facilitate reuse of the content; please refer to the International Journal of Gynecological Cancer Copyright Author License Statement.

Institutional Review Board Approval
Every research article, including every submitted article involving human participants, requires a statement of ethical or institutional review board approval within the manuscript text.  Furthermore, a formal letter of ethical or institutional review board approval must be uploaded along with the manuscript files at initial submission.

In addition, please note that all manuscripts reporting clinical research on human subjects must state in the first paragraph of the Methods section that: 1) The study was approved by the appropriate Institutional Review Board (IRB), and 2) written informed consent was obtained from all subjects, a legal surrogate, the parents or legal guardians for minor subjects, or the requirement for written informed consent was waived by the IRB.

For the above, please state whether written informed consent was obtained from all subjects. If written informed consent was not obtained, please state whether the requirement for written informed consent was waived by the IRB.

Find more information about ethical approval.

Author’s Response
When submitting a revision, please include an Author’s Response to the reviewers’ comments.  Please list each comment from each reviewer and provide a point-by-point response indicating how the comment has been addressed and the specific page(s) and line number(s) where the change was made in the manuscript text file.  Additionally, please copy and paste the changed text in the Author’s Response.

An example is below:

Reviewer 1, Comment 1: Please clarify what you mean by “borderline pathology.”

Author’s Reply: We have clarified this in the Methods section on page 6, lines 4-5.

Modified Text: “Patients with borderline mucinous and serous tumors were more likely to be partially satisfied, not satisfied or not at all satisfied compared to patients with cancer (p=0.027).”

Please note that authors may be required to provide data or cited works upon request for purposes of peer review.

Abbreviations
Abbreviations cannot be used and must be spelled out at each use (including the title, abstract, and main text) for all terms. If a submission contains abbreviations, it will be returned to the author for all abbreviations to be spelled out through the submission prior to review. The only allowed exceptions to this rule are listed below:

Abbreviations are always allowed for:

  • Units of measure
  • Clinical trial names
  • Any name of a gene (e.g., BRCA) or serologic market (e.g., CA125)

Abbreviations are allowed but must be spelled out at first use for:
  • Statistical terms (SPSS, Stata)
  • The following organizations: NCI, WHO, FDA, CDC
  • The following terms: HPV, Pap, MRI, USG, CT, PET/CT, HNPCC, HIPEC, RIFLE, FDG, EGOG, SLN, NCCN, FIGO, AUC, VIN, dVIN, HSIL, STIC, EOC, HGSC, PD-L1 https://drive.google.com/drive/folders/1EZGiAF0tz4QeW2QN387SRVWwjgU6jadyand SCS

Word Count
The word count excludes the title page, abstract, tables, acknowledgements and contributions and the references. If you are not a native English speaker and would like assistance with your article there is a professional editing service available.

Excluded Article Types
The IJGC is not currently accepting submissions on breast cancer. Additionally, given the high volume of submissions on the subject of HPV and pre-invasive disease of the lower genital tract, we will restrict consideration for review and ultimate publication to those manuscripts reflecting novel data from either large prospective trials or high-level scientific multi-institutional efforts reflecting a high number of patients. We will also give higher priority to work that is impacting a segment or region of the world where HPV has been limited. Manuscripts reflecting findings that have already been published by others with similar results will not be considered for review and will be returned to authors.

Editors as Authors
When a paper has been submitted from the Editor, Deputy or Associate Editors’ departments, they have no role in the reviewing or decision-making process. This also applies to any Associate Editors who are authors, in which instance the reviewing process is handled by the Editor in Chief.

Industry Authorship
The IJGC encourages the submission of manuscripts outlining results of research conducted in collaboration and/or supported by industry partnership. Manuscripts where authorship is shared among investigators both involved or uninvolved with industry sponsors will be evaluated in detail for compliance with updated Conflict of Interest statements. In addition, the number of authors who are directly or indirectly strictly linked with a company or pharmaceutical will be limited to no more than two authors. All authors must be in agreement with the final submission of such manuscript, and such authors shall agree to provide raw data if so requested by either Editorial team or Reviewers. Manuscripts exclusively written by members of a pharmaceutical company without any input from medical/surgical collaborators will not be considered for review.

File Formats
When submitting to IJGC, please ensure all files are submitted correctly with the corresponding file types selected. Doing so can help reduce the amount of time before your paper receives a decision.

Specific Examples:

  • All tables should be submitted in the manuscript document after the references section. The main manuscript document (with tables) file should be in Word doc format.
  • Each figure should be uploaded as a separate “Image” file. Figures may be in TIFF, EPS, PDF, or JPEG format.
  • Highlights should be uploaded in one “Highlights” file. The Highlights document should be in Word doc format.

Visual Abstracts
The International Journal of Gynecologic Cancer is excited to announce that it will begin accepting visual abstracts from authors of in process or accepted manuscripts.

A visual abstract is meant to provide readers with the highlights of the article in an easy-to-read and visually engaging image.

Authors are required to use our template to create their visual abstract.

All visual abstracts should include the following:

  1. Article Title
  2. Full author list (institutions not necessary)
  3. Easy-to-read and visually engaging image that highlights the findings and conclusions of the study

Visual abstracts should be in PowerPoint format.

Visual abstracts should be emailed to the Editorial Office at ijgc@jjeditorial.com within two weeks of the article being accepted for publication.  Please use the email subject line “Visual Abstract for ‘[Article Title].’  Visual abstracts will be shared on IJGC’s social media channels.  Please include the Twitter handles of any authors or institutions who would like to be tagged in IJGC’s social media posts about the article.

Please contact the Editorial Office at ijgc@jjeditorial.com with questions.

Article Types

Original research

Our intent is to publish high quality research as it relates to clinical trials, outcome analyses, translational research, cost utility analyses, etc. Meta-analyses and literature reviews should be submitted as Original Articles and require a PRISMA Checklist. Authors should use the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE) system for grading evidence when submitting a clinical guidelines article.

Original research should include a structured abstract of no more than 300 words with the following subsections: Introduction, Methods, Results and Discussion. The manuscript text should have the following headings: Introduction, Methods, Results and Discussion. The following statement must be included in the Methods section: In accordance with the journal’s guidelines, we will provide our data for the reproducibility of this study in other centers if such is requested.

Original research should also include a Precis of 200 characters, which should briefly provide information on the value and impact of the study. Authors should also submit 3 Highlights of no more than 100 characters each, outlining the key findings and impact of the study. Authors may also include supplemental figures and tables.

Word Count: up to 2,700 words
Abstract (not including abstract or references): up to 300 words
Tables/Figures: up to 5 tables and/or figures
References: up to 35
Authors: up to 40 (no more than 8 from a single institution)

Review

Review articles will address a topic of major interest in the field of gynecologic oncology and should include an unstructured abstract of no more than 300 words and a Precis of no more than 200 characters. The Precis should briefly provide information on the value and impact of the study. Authors may also include supplemental figures and tables.

Abstract: up to 300 words
Word Count (not including abstract or references): up to 5,000 words
Tables/Figures: up to 7 tables and/or figures
References: up to 50
Authors: up to 5

Case study

By invitation only, Case Studies include a specific case of interest in the field of gynecologic oncology, a question and answer, and a discussion. They are limited to five authors total with two presenters, one discussant, one pathologist, and one radiologist.

Abstract: none
Word Count (not including abstract or references): up to 2,500
Tables/Figures: up to 1 table and 4 figures
References: up to 10 references
Authors: up to 5

Letter

Letters should be a short and concise communication commenting on a recently published Original Article in the Journal or commenting on a controversial current issue of concern to the readership. The letters must be submitted within 90 days of publication of the Original Article in question. A Letter to the Editor is not a site for publication of original results. A statement of potential sources of conflict of interest must accompany the letter and may be published along with the letter. The Editorial Board reserves the right to decline publishing insulting or inflammatory comments in letters to the editor.

Word Count (not including abstract or references): up to 200
References: up to 5
Authors: up to 3

Commentary

The type of article should provide novel insight and perspectives on a topic of interest in the field of gynecologic oncology. The manuscript should address unresolved and timely issues that may impact the evaluation, management and/or surveillance of patients with gynecologic cancers. In this section, the authors may provide their insight regarding topics that have been published either in the International Journal of Gynecological Cancer (IJGC) or in other journals. However, it is particularly about a specific article that was published in IJGC then such manuscript should be submitted as a Letter to the Editor. IJGC Commentaries may involve discussions on new treatment strategies, surgical approaches, pathology diagnosis, or imaging modalities. This may include disagreements regarding such approaches. Given that this forum may lend itself to personal or group opinions, there should be evidence provided to support the arguments submitted through appropriate referencing. Speculations without supportive evidence are to be avoided. This is not a forum for presentation of new data or analyses constituting original research. The manuscript should be limited to no more than 500 words, no more than 5 authors, and no more than 8 references.

Word Count: up to 500
References: up to 8
Authors: up to 5

Editorial

By invitation, Editorials have a limit of 500 words and a limit of 2 authors, and 5 references, including the article in question.

Word count (not including abstract or references): up to 500
References: up to 5
Authors: up to 2

Video article

This exciting new feature focuses on high-quality videos that includes any educational topic in Gynecologic Oncology. IJGC’s aim is to provide gynecologic oncologists around the world with a unique educational opportunity using multimedia. Video articles may focus on radiological imaging, ambulatory procedures, pathology, surgical anatomy, exposure, innovation, reconstruction, step-by-step-procedures, complications and resolutions, as well as anatomic variations, tips and tricks in gynecologic oncology, robotics, or new devices. Video Articles may also illustrate ways of improving surgery in developing countries or implementing surgery in scenarios with low resources. Videos that have been presented at a meeting are eligible to be submitted to IJGC.

A video article should include a video that is between 5 and 8 minutes in duration and no larger than 350 MB. The video must be narrated in English and should not include music. The video may include slides, not exceeding 2 minutes in total. The first slide of the video must include the submission title and the authors’ name(s) and institution(s). The last slide of the video must include the conclusions and acknowledgments. Whenever a video article shows a surgical procedure, it is recommend to add within the video (or as supplementary material) two tables showing the specific material needed and a summary of tips for carrying out the procedure.

The manuscript text should only be an unstructured summary of no more than 350 words, and must include references, no more than 4.

Please include a title page in the main manuscript file including title, author list, authors institutions, and corresponding author information. Video articles have a limit of 6 authors. Please list the length (in minutes), the size (in megabytes), and the type of video file (.mov, .mpg, .avi, or .mp4) in the title page.

An individual high quality still image of the video should also be submitted that illustrates the technique demonstrated in the video. Please include a figure legend for the still image, as well as a caption for the video, at the end of the main document text after the references.

We encourage authors to include text and drawings in the video showing and pointing out the anatomical structures as well as schemas either of the procedure or the surgical field. Attractive educational content along with a high quality video and sound are greatly appreciated at the time of the evaluation. Authors are encouraged to contact IJGC’s Video Editor Luis Chiva for any questions or assistance with creating a Video Article.

Summary: up to 350 words
References: up to 4
Authors: up to 6
Length: up to 8 minutes
File size: up to 350 MB

Educational video lecture

Our Editorial Board has approved a new type of contribution to our journal called Educational Video Lectures.

Usually, this type of video article is accepted by personal invitation from the Editorial Board. However, any author may submit a pre-submission inquiry, which will be evaluated for possible full submission by IJGC’s Video Editor, Dr. Luis Chiva. Please send pre-submission inquiries to the Editorial Office at ijgc@jjeditorial.com.

These submissions will show a review lecture of any updated educational topic on gynecologic oncology, typically supported by a narrated slide presentation. Surgical videos might be embedded within the presentation, but it should be shown in full screen when they were played. The author may introduce himself/herself at the beginning of the lecture within a short clip and afterwards, only his/her voiceover will accompany the presentation of the slides. Presentations of lectures given in any recent meeting can be accepted if they are not under any copyright restrictions. A final slide showing the conclusions, top reference articles, and acknowledgments is recommended.

Quality of the educational content and updated information will be the most relevant features to consider the submission for publication.

Additionally, the manuscript text should only be an unstructured summary of no more than 500 words, and must include references (no more than 10 references). Please list the length (in minutes), the size (in megabytes), and the type of video file (.mov, .mpg, .avi, or .mp4) in the title page. Educational Video Lectures have a limit of 6 authors. Please also include an individual high quality still image that illustrates or summarizes the content of the Video lecture. Please include a figure legend for the still image, as well as a caption for the video, at the end of the main document text after the references. Finally, please upload a headshot of the lead author and include a short bio (2-4 sentences) as a figure legend for the headshot at the end of the main document text after the references.

Authors are encouraged to contact IJGC’s Video Editor Luis Chiva (lchiva@unav.es) for any questions or assistance with creating an Educational Video Lecture.

Summary: up to 500 words
References: up to 10
Authors: up to 6
Length: up to 15 minutes
Maximum number of slides: 30
File size: up to 350 MB

Clinical trial

These articles will look at ongoing clinical trials in the field of gynecologic oncology. The articles must have a main objective and the studies must have and/or be accruing patients. The articles should include an Introduction, explaining the rationale for the study; a Methods section (inclusion and exclusion criteria for the study must be clearly outlined), detailing the study design; and a Discussion section, describing how the study may change current standards of care and practice. Authors may also include supplemental figures and tables.

Word Count (not including abstract or references): up to 2,500 words
Tables/Figures: up to 5 tables and/or figures
References: up to 15
Authors: up to 30

Detailed instructions are below:

Abstract

Please use all of the subheadings listed below.

  • Background (2 sentences)
  • Primary Objective(s) (1-2 sentences). Please do not include secondary/exploratory objectives in abstract
  • Study Hypothesis (1 sentence)
  • Trial Design (3-4 sentences)
  • Major Inclusion/Exclusion Criteria (2-3 sentences)
  • Primary Endpoint(s) (1-2 sentence)
  • Sample Size
  • Estimated Dates for Completing Accrual and Presenting Results
  • Trial Registration
Manuscript
Introduction (Heading)
  • Should include brief background, rationale, and hypothesis (3-4 paragraphs)
Methods (Heading)

Trial Design (Subheading)

  • Description of trial design/treatment plan
  • Include funding source (if applicable)
  • Setting including participating organizations and number of sites
  • Include study schema as a figure

Participants (Subheading)

  • Inclusion/exclusion criteria (major)
  • Can be more detail than abstract but do not get into minutia

Primary Endpoints (Subheading)

  • Include primary and secondary objective(s) and endpoints
  • Important translational/exploratory endpoints (but not all)

Sample Size (Subheading)

  • How sample size was determined
  • When applicable, explanation of any interim analyses and stopping guidelines

Randomization and blinding (Subheading) (if applicable)

  • Method used to generate the random allocation sequence
  • Type of randomization
  • If done, who was blinded after assignment to interventions (for example, participants, care providers, those assessing outcomes) and how

Statistical Methods (Subheading)

  • Brief details of analysis of primary and secondary endpoints (1-2 paragraphs)
Discussion (Heading)
  • Brief summary of expected results and how they will change practice

Corners of the world

A brief article highlighted those in the field of gynecologic oncology who are doing impactful work in either their local community or abroad. IJGC‘s goal is to show the global scope of our mission and to excite other who are doing great work. Though there is a limit of 5 authors for the article, an Acknowledgements list for those involved in the work may be included.

Abstract: none
Word Count (not including abstract or references): up to 500 words
Tables/Figures: up to 3 figures
References: none
Authors: up to 5

IJGC Images

Authors are encouraged to submit novel and impacting images (maximum of 2) that represent unique disease manifestations and offer educational and training value to gynecologic oncologists. We encourage authors to submit material that is not only unique and novel but that also provides an insight into diagnostic challenges. Images should not absolutely represent rarities in the field, but we also encourage submissions of findings that may be encountered in everyday practice but that provide unique insight in the management of patients with gynecologic cancers.

Images should be original and have not been published as part of a previously published manuscript. In addition, these must be of very high resolution and quality.

In preparing the images please remove all information that could be used to identify a patient, including name, medical record number, hospital name, or city. Authors should also remove all brand names of equipment or industry. All efforts should be made to obtain informed consent from patients who are alive prior to publication of the image. If such is not possible, the authors must provide a statement documenting as to the efforts that have been made and the reason as to why consent is not provided.

When preparing the images, please provide a title page with the title of the image (no more than 8 words). In the title page, each author name should be listed with the respective affiliation. No more than 2 authors will be allowed and each should have substantially contributed to the submission. A briefly detailed explanation of the findings should be included as a descriptive legend (not to exceed 150 words). The legend may provide the following: clinical information, which may include patient’s history, index presentation, important physical examination or laboratory findings, clinical course, and ultimate outcome. No black and white images will be accepted. No specific feature within an image may be enhanced, obscured, moved, removed, or introduced.

The text of the legend is not in the standard format of a manuscript. Therefore, it should not include an abstract, précis, or highlights. It should be strictly a description of the findings as outlined above. Authors should make sure to provide a legend for each figure and not as a composite of both figures. For detail specification, it is encouraged for the authors to use arrowheads only to minimize obstructive distraction from the image. If there is more than one panel, please label each panel as Image A&B (according to the total number of images). No references are allowed.

Images should be submitted in .JPG or .TIFF format. There is no minimum resolution, but we recommend that all images be at least 1200 pixels wide by 600 pixels long. No single image can be larger than 350 MB.

Word Count: up to 150 words
Images: up to 2
Authors: up to 2
Size: up to 350MB

IJGC Pathology Archives

Authors are encouraged to submit images (minimum of 2 and maximum of 4) that present a topic of interest to gynecologic oncologist and pathologist highlighting features that are unique and representative of a gynecologic pre-invasive disease or tumor. Such images do not need to be an absolute rarity in our field but more so represent common and typical findings of disease often encountered in gynecologic oncology. A briefly detailed explanation of the findings should be included (not to exceed 500 words) where the pathologist highlights the findings on the images.

We encourage images that contain not only H&E illustrations but also other techniques that may further enhance the educational value of the manuscript. These may include but not limited to immunohistochemistry or other techniques that the authors consider would be of interest and that highlight novel diagnostic tools.

The text is not in the standard format of a manuscript. Therefore, it should not include an abstract, précis, or highlights. It should be strictly a description of the findings as outlined above. Authors should make sure to provide an explanation for each of the figures and not as a composite of all the figures. For detail specification, it is encouraged for the authors to use arrowheads only to minimize obstructive distraction from the image. Please note that no photographs of identifiable patients will be accepted. A total of 4 maximum number of authors will be permitted and each should have substantially contributed to the manuscript.

All images must be of the highest quality. Please submit a title that contains no more than 10 words. The title should be in the title page with the names of all the authors and their respective institutional affiliations. No black and white images will be accepted. If there is more than one panel, please label each panel as Image A, B, C and D (according to the total number of images). A total of 4 references are allowed.

Images should be submitted in .JPG or .TIFF format. There is no minimum resolution, but we recommend that all images be at least 1200 pixels wide by 600 pixels long. No single image can be larger than 350 MB.

Word Count: up to 500 words
References: up to 4
Images: up to 4
Authors: up to 4
Size: up to 350MB

Editorial Policies

IJGC aims to operate a fast submission and review process, to ensure timely, up-to-date research is available worldwide. Submissions should be made through the Journal’s online submission system, here. Articles should not be under review by any other journal when submitted to IJGC. 

IJGC adheres to the highest standards concerning its editorial policies on publication ethics, scientific misconduct, consent and peer review criteria. To view all BMJ Journal policies please refer to the BMJ Author Hub policies page.

Copyright and authors’ rights

Articles are published under an exclusive licence (or non-exclusive license for UK Crown and US Federal Government employees) and authors retain copyright. Articles can also be published under a Creative Commons license to facilitate reuse of the content; please refer to the International Journal of Gynecological Cancer Copyright Author License Statement.

When publishing in International Journal of Gynecological Cancer, authors choose between three licence types – exclusive licence granted to BMJ, CC-BY-NC and CC-BY (Creative Commons open access licences require payment of an article processing charge).

As an author you may wish to post your article in an institutional or subject repository, or on a scientific social sharing network. You may also link your published article to your preprint (if applicable). What you can do with your article, without seeking permission, depends on the licence you have chosen and the version of your article. Please refer to the BMJ author self archiving and permissions policies page for more information.

Article Processing Charges

During submission, authors can choose to have their article published open access. There are no submission, page or color figure charges. The costs for open access for members are $2,200 and for non-members the costs are $2,800.

For more information on open access, funder compliance and institutional programs please refer to the BMJ Author Hub open access page.

Manuscript Transfer

Your article will not automatically be transferred to IJGC if rejected from another BMJ Journal; however, you will be able to choose IJGC as an alternate journal when submitting an article to any BMJ Journal; any reviewer comments will be shared, resulting in a reduced time to decision.

Manuscripts will be evaluated separately by the IJGC editorial team, with different criteria for acceptance.

Data Checks

BMJ is a member of CrossCheck by CrossRef and iThenticate. iThenticate is a plagiarism screening service that verifies the originality of content submitted before publication. iThenticate checks submissions against millions of published research papers, and billions of web content. Authors, researchers and freelancers can also use iThenticate to screen their work before submission by visiting ithenticate.com.

Data Sharing

IJGC adheres to BMJ’s Tier 3 data policy. We strongly encourage that data generated by your research that supports your article be made available as soon as possible, wherever legally and ethically possible. All research articles must contain a Data Availability Statement. For more information and FAQs, please see BMJ’s full Data Sharing Policy page.

Preprints

Preprints foster openness, accessibility and collaboration by allowing authors to make their findings immediately available to the research community and receive feedback on an article before it is submitted to a journal for formal publication.

BMJ fully supports and encourages the archiving of preprints in any recognised, not-for-profit server such as medRxiv. BMJ does not consider the posting of an article in a dedicated preprint repository to be prior publication.

Preprints are reports of work that have not been peer-reviewed; Preprints should therefore not be used to guide clinical practice, health-related behaviour or health policy. For more information, please refer to our Preprint policy page.

ORCID Policy

IJGC mandates ORCID IDs for the submitting author at the time of article submission; co-authors and reviewers are strongly encouraged to also connect their ScholarOne accounts to ORCID. We strongly believe that the increased use and integration of ORCID iDs will be beneficial for the whole research community. Please find more information about ORCID and BMJ’s policy on our Author Hub.

Reviewing for IJGC

Peer review may seem like a thankless task, but without it research would be unreliable. IJGC and BMJ value reviewers and want to encourage good standards of review.  We encourage reviewers to read the Reviewer Guide or view the video below to learn more as Dr. Pedro Ramirez, IJGC’s Editor-in-Chief, provides reviewers with detailed instructions and considerations for preparing review comments for IJGC manuscripts.

If you have any questions about reviewing, please contact our Editorial team at ijgc@jjeditorial.com.  Information on how to review for any BMJ Journal is also available here.


Supplements

The BMJ Publishing Group journals are willing to consider publishing supplements to regular issues. Supplement proposals may be made at the request of:

  • The journal editor, an editorial board member or a learned society may wish to organise a meeting, sponsorship may be sought and the proceedings published as a supplement.
  • The journal editor, editorial board member or learned society may wish to commission a supplement on a particular theme or topic. Again, sponsorship may be sought.
  • The BMJPG itself may have proposals for supplements where sponsorship may be necessary.
  • A sponsoring organisation, often a pharmaceutical company or a charitable foundation, that wishes to arrange a meeting, the proceedings of which will be published as a supplement.

In all cases, it is vital that the journal’s integrity, independence and academic reputation is not compromised in any way.

For further information on criteria that must be fulfilled, download the supplements guidelines.

When contacting us regarding a potential supplement, please include as much of the information below as possible.

  • Journal in which you would like the supplement published
  • Title of supplement and/or meeting on which it is based
  • Date of meeting on which it is based
  • Proposed table of contents with provisional article titles and proposed authors
  • An indication of whether authors have agreed to participate
  • Sponsor information including any relevant deadlines
  • An indication of the expected length of each paper Guest Editor proposals if appropriate