Table 4

Comparison of intravenous fluids, analgesic and anti-emetics in the enhanced recovery after surgery (ERAS) and conventional management (CM) groups

CharacteristicsERASCMP value
Intra-operative factors
 Total crystalloid used (L)3.18±1.063.28±1.310.692
 Patients colloids used (n (%))6 (13.3)10 (22.2)0.27
 Patients blood transfused (n (%))18 (40)18 (40)1
 Total fentanyl dose (μg)137.1±27.2146.1±35.60.181
 Total buprenorphin dose (μg)141.8±21.5142.5±16.10.862
 Total acetaminophen dose (g)1 (0–1)1 (0–1)
 Patients additional intravenous opioid used (n (%))1 (2.2)4 (8.9)0.167
Post-operative factors
 Total intravenous fluid (L)2.38±0.437.19±2.38<0.001
 Total intravenous acetaminophen (g)7.05±1.4113.81±3.16<0.001
 Total buprenorphin dose (μg)452.3±152.9880±160.2<0.001
 Patients requiring tramadol for pain score ≥4 (n (%))6 (13.3)22 (48.9)<0.001
 Patients requiring fentanyl for breakthrough pain (n (%))012 (26.7)<0.001
 Patients requiring continuous infusion (n (%))05 (11.1)0.021
 Patients requiring additional analgesic (n (%))4 (8.9%)25(55.6%)<0.001
Patients requiring additional anti-emetic for excessive post-operative nausea and vomiting (n (%))3(6.7%)2(4.4%)0.645
 POD 2
 Patients requiring intravenous analgesic (n (%))5 (11.1)45 (100.0)<0.001
  • CM, conventional management; ERAS, enhanced recovery after surgery; POD, post-operative day.