Table 1

Patient characteristics, categorized per treatment group for patients with bulky nodes ≥1.5 cm

CharacteristicsOverall
(n=190)
Boosting
(n=101)
Debulking
(n=60)
Neither
(n=29)
p-value
Age (years)51 (25–92)51 (27–92)50 (25–77)55 (31–83)0.005*
Charlson morbidity index0.56
 0121 (64%)63 (62%)40 (67%)18 (62%)
 123 (12%)14 (14%)5 (8%)4 (14%)
 ≥213 (7%)9 (9%)4 (7%)
Unknown33 (17%)15 (15%)11 (18%)7 (24%)
Smoking (yes)62 (33%)33 (33%)18 (30%)11 (38%)0.75
Pretreatment SCC-Ag† (ng/mL)10.9
(0.1–278.0)
8.0
(0.1–224.3)
16.4
(1.0–176.0)
11.9
(0.3–278.0)
0.14
FIGO 2009 stage0.16
 IB230 (16%)15 (15%)14 (23%)1 (3%)
 II105 (55%)54 (53%)33 (55%)18 (62%)
 III46 (24%)28 (28%)11 (18%)7 (24%)
 IVA9 (5%)4 (4%)2 (3%)3 (10%)
Primary tumor size0.08
 ≤431 (16%)13 (13%)11 (18%)7 (24%)
 >4156 (82%)87 (86%)49 (82%)20 (69%)
 Unknown3 (2%)1 (1%)0 (0%)2 (7%)
Histological type0.92
 Squamous165 (87%)87 (86%)53 (88%)25 (86%)
 Non-squamous25 (13%)14 (14%)7 (12%)4 (14%)
 Bulky node size (mm)19 (15–86)18 (15–86)22 (15–83)17 (15–60)<0.001*
Region of bulky node‡0.21
 Pelvic158 (83%)84 (83%)51 (85%)23 (79%)
 Common iliac12 (6%)7 (7%)5 (8%)
 Para-aortic20 (11%)10 (10%)4 (7%)6 (21%)
 Diagnosis to primary treatment interval (days)53 (11–128)48 (11–96)62 (28–128)55 (30–125)<0.001*
Primary treatment<0.001*
 CRT149 (78%)75 (74%)57 (95%)17 (59%)
 (C)HRT25 (13%)17 (17%)1 (2%)7 (24%)
 RT only16 (8%)9 (9%)2 (3%)5 (17%)
 Brachytherapy (yes)178 (94%)98 (97%)58 (97%)22 (76%)<0.001*
 Nodal boost (yes)130 (68%)101 (100%)29 (48%)<0.001*
Radiotherapy field0.002*
 Pelvic114 (60%)64 (63%)28 (47%)22 (76%)
 Pelvic +para-aortic71 (37%)37 (37%)27 (48%)5 (17%)
 Unknown5 (3%)3 (5%)2 (7%)
 Follow-up (months)45 (3–144)49 (3–143)42 (5–144)40 (8–134)0.85
 Recurrence93 (49%)49 (49%)31 (52%)13 (45%)0.83
Recurrence location§0.31
 Central pelvic14 (15%)7 (14%)4 (13%)3 (23%)0.62
 Lateral pelvic24 (26%)11 (22%)10 (32%)3 (23%)0.64
 Para-aortic30 (32%)16 (33%)11 (35%)3 (23%)0.75
 Distant70 (75%)36 (73%)24 (77%)10 (77%)0.94
 Unknown1 (1%)1 (2%)
Vital status0.26
 Alive86 (45%)51 (51%)25 (42%)10 (34%)
 Deaths104 (55%)50 (49%)35 (58%)19 (66%)
  • Data are the number of patients (percentage) or median (range).

  • *Statistically significant.

  • †For squamous cell type only.

  • ‡Most cranial lymph node region was decisive.

  • §Some patients had multiple recurrence locations.

  • SCC-Ag, squamous cell antigen; FIGO, International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics; CRT, chemoradiation; (C)HRT, (chemotherapy with) hyperthermia and radiotherapy; RT, radiotherapy.