Table 1

Pre-operative demographics and clinical characteristics

CharacteristicsPatients (n=261)%
Age group (years)
Functional status
 Partially dependent00
 Totally dependent00
ASA class
 Healthy patient (ASA 1)0
 Mild systemic disease (ASA 2)16964.8
 Severe systemic disease (ASA 3)9235.2
 Severe systemic disease/constant threat to life (ASA 4)0
 Moribund (ASA 5)0
Steroid use for chronic condition
 High (≥4)0
 Yes-on oral agent103.8
 Yes-on insulin62.3
Hypertension requiring medication
Congestive heart failure within 30 days prior to surgery
 With moderate exertion41.5
 At rest00.0
History of severe COPD
BMI (median, range); n=260 25.2 (22.5–28.4)
 Clear cell41.5
Operative time, min (median, range); n=65 152 (116–242)
EBL, mL (median, range); n=259 300 (150–500)
Surgical complexity
Residual disease; n=260
 Complete surgical resection16663.8
 Optimal (≤1 cm)7930.4
 Suboptimal (>1 cm)155.8
Length of stay, days (median, range); n=261 5 (3–6)
Post-operative complications
 Surgical site infection (deep incisional or organ space)3513.4
 Systemic sepsis00.0
 Post-operative VTE/PE93.4
 Unplanned intubation00.0
 Myocardial infarction/cardiac event00.0
 Acute renal failure/insufficiency00.0
 Any serious complication5721.8
  • ASA, American Society of Anesthesiologists; BMI, body mass index; COPD, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease; EBL, estimated blood loss; UTI, urinary tract infection; VTE/PE, venous thromboembolic event/pulmonary embolus.