Table 4

Factors affecting IES mean scores

Model and variableCoefficientSEP>|z|95% CI
IES model, n=118
Gender−4.7652.9510.11−10.636 to 1.106
Ethnicity−1.7433.7760.646−9.256 to 5.77
Income−8.1235.9640.177−19.989 to 3.743
Marital status−5.2014.0420.202−13.244 to 2.842
Religion−4.4143.2490.178−10.879 to 2.051
Age−0.1170.5010.815−1.113 to 0.879
Healthcare sector (both vs private)0.7416.9860.916−13.159 to 14.64
Healthcare sector (government vs private)1.7275.4540.752−9.125 to 12.578
Postgraduate experience−0.0990.4450.825−0.984 to 0.786
Total years of fellowship−1.3581.6690.418−4.678 to 1.962
HDI−14.9516.1770.018−27.241 to −2.66
National training program10.3444.0070.0122.371 to 18.316
Shielding0.7194.0150.858−7.269 to 8.708
Additional training time5.7123.6410.121−1.534 to 12.957
Overall increase in clinical workload−1.6144.6640.73−10.894 to 7.666
PPE access−18.19310.2730.08−38.633 to 2.246
COVID-19 sickness1.1633.1060.709−5.017 to 7.342
Redeployment−3.6144.6510.439−12.868 to 5.641
Adequate pastoral support−14.7184.016<0.001−22.71 to −6.727
  • Multiple linear regression model evaluating the association of covariates with IES mean scores. Model adjusted for gender, ethnicity, income, marital status, religion, income, age, and postgraduate experience.

  • IES is a 15-item validated questionnaire. Each item scored on a 4-point Likert scale from 0 to 5 with total scores ranging from 0 to 75. Higher scores indicate higher distress levels.

  • Gender: male vs female.

  • Ethnicity: white (reference category) vs non-white.

  • Income: $>150 000 (reference category) vs $<50 000.

  • Marital status: married/cohabiting (reference category) vs single/divorced.

  • Religion: Muslim/Christian/Jewish/Hindu/Buddhist (reference category) vs none.

  • Age: age in years (continuous variable).

  • Healthcare sector: trainees working in both government and private healthcare settings vs private only (reference category).

  • Healthcare sector: trainees working in government only healthcare settings vs private only (reference category).

  • Postgraduate experience: number of years (continuous variable).

  • Total years of fellowship: number of years (continuous variable).

  • HDI: very high/high (reference category) vs medium.

  • National training program: yes (reference category) vs no.

  • Shielding: yes (reference category) vs no.

  • Additional training time: definitely/probably/don't know (reference category) vs probably not/definitely not.

  • Overall increase in clinical workload: yes (reference category) vs no.

  • PPE access: yes all the time/yes some of the time (reference category) vs no most of the time/not at all.

  • COVID-19 sickness: yes (reference category) vs no.

  • Redeployment: yes (reference category) vs no.

  • Adequate pastoral support: yes all the time/yes some of the time (reference category) vs no most of the time/not at all.

  • HDI, Human Development Index; IES, Impact of Event Scale questionnaire; PPE, personal protective equipment.