Table 1

Evidence table of the 12 studies included in the meta-analysis

Study nameStudy designInterventionOpen, MIS, or mixedDose and timingPost-op durationControlSample size (n)Outcome (DVT, PE, or both)Benign or malignantQuality
Ailawadi, 200118 Retrospective cohortUFH+SCDMixed5000 units on call to ORUntil dischargeSCD168BothMalignantHigh
Bouchard-Fortier, 201419 Retrospective cohortUFH or LMWHMixedNot notedMostly 2 doses or fewerNo prophylaxis419BothMalignantPoor
Clarke-Pearson, 198322 Retrospective cohortUFHOpen5000 units at midnight prior or 2 hours pre ORUntil POD 5–7No prophylaxis or SCD281BothMalignantHigh
Corr, 201523 Prospective cohortPre-op UFH+SCDMixed5000–7500 units prior to skin incisionUp to 14 days if malignantPost-op UFH+SCD527BothBothHigh
Einstein, 200824 Prospective cohortUFH+SCDNot stated5000 units 1–2 hours pre ORUntil dischargeSCD605BothBothHigh
Freeman, 201625 Retrospective cohortUFH or LMWH+SCDMISUFH 5000 units or enoxaparin 30–40 mg 1 hour pre ORUntil dischargeSCD1143BothMalignantHigh
Hansen, 200826 Prospective cohortPre-op UFHMixedDose not given; prior to skin incisionNot statedPost-op UFH9035BothBenignHigh
Hopp, 201816 Retrospective cohortPre-op and post-op UFH+SCDNot statedNot notedNot statedPost-op UFH+SCD1129BothMalignantPoor
Maxwell, 20012 RCTLMWHMixedDalteparin 2500 units 1–2 hours pre ORUntil POD 5 or ambulatorySCD211BothMalignantFair
Pelkofski, 201417 Retrospective cohortPre-op anticoagulantOpenDose not given; prior to skin incisionNot statedPost-op anticoagulant431BothBothPoor
Ugaki, 200820 Retrospective cohortPre-op and post-op UFH+SCDOpen2500 units 2 hours pre OR1 dose 12 hours post-opSCDs85PEMalignantPoor
Whitworth, 201121 Retrospective cohortPre-op LMWH and post-op LMWH+SCDOpen40 mg 2 hours pre ORUntil dischargePost-op LMWH+SCD239DVTBothPoor
  • *Mechanical refers to sequential compression devices or other mechanical venous thromboembolic prophylaxis.

  • DVT, deep vein thrombosis; LMWH, low molecular weight heparin; MIS, minimally invasive surgery; OR, operating room; PE, pulmonary embolism; POD, post-opereative day; post-op, post-operative; pre-op, pre-operative; RCT, randomized controlled trial; SCD, sequential compression device; UFH, unfractionated heparin.