Table 2

Tumor characteristics by route of hysterectomy

OpenLaparoscopicRoboticTotalP value
n (%)n (%)n (%)n (%)
No of cases1305 (44.3)410 (13.9)1234 (41.8)2949 (100)
Surgical field<0.001
 Simple hysterectomy1100 (42.5)373 (14.4)1115 (43.1)2588 (100)
 Radical hysterectomy205 (56.8)37 (10.2)119 (33.0)361 (100)
Histology<0.001
 Endometrioid carcinoma907 (41.3)317 (14.4)970 (44.2)2194 (100)
 Serous carcinoma164 (44.1)55 (14.8)153 (41.1)372 (100)
 Clear cell carcinoma60 (57.7)10 (9.6)34 (32.7)104 (100)
 Carcinosarcoma174 (62.4)28 (10.0)77 (27.6)279 (100)
Grade<0.001
 Well differentiated186 (37.6)73 (14.7)236 (47.7)495 (100)
 Moderately differentiated339 (40.9)129 (15.6)360 (43.5)828 (100)
 Poorly differentiated627 (51.1)156 (12.7)443 (36.1)1226 (100)
 Unknown153 (38.3)52 (13.0)195 (48.8)400 (100)
Tumor size (cm)
 Mean±SD6.20±5.285.82±1.025.10±13.415.69±4.80<0.001*
Tumor size stratified (cm)<0.001
 <290 (38.3)41 (17.4)104 (44.2)235 (100)
 ≥2 and <4259 (36.6)103 (14.5)346 (48.9)708 (100)
 ≥4767 (48.1)211 (13.2)617 (38.7)1595 (100)
 Unknown189 (46.0)55 (13.4)167 (40.6)411 (100)
Lymphovascular invasion0.258
 No799 (44.9)227 (12.7)755 (42.4)1781 (100)
 Yes409 (43.1)148 (15.6)393 (41.4)950 (100)
 Unknown97 (44.5)35 (16.1)86 (39.4)218 (100)
Surgical margin0.518
 Negative1192 (44.2)376 (13.9)1128 (41.8)2696 (100)
 Positive30 (42.3)6 (8.5)35 (49.3)71 (100)
 Unknown83 (45.6)28 (15.4)71 (39.0)182 (100)
Adjuvant treatment0.001
 No341 (47.6)97 (13.5)279 (38.9)717 (100)
 Chemotherapy only142 (50.9)35 (12.5)102 (36.6)279 (100)
 Radiation therapy only475 (39.5)171 (14.2)556 (46.3)1202 (100)
 Radiation therapy and chemotherapy297 (47.1)83 (13.2)251 (39.8)631 (100)
 Unknown50 (41.7)24 (20.0)46 (38.3)120 (100)
  • Data are n (%) unless otherwise specified.

  • Percentages are in row percent, and proportions were compared using χ2 tests.

  • *A t-test was used to calculate p values for the mean difference of tumor size (cm) for open vs laparoscopic vs robotic surgery.