Introduction The objective was to evaluate whether hybrid imaging combining single photon emission tomography with computed tomography (SPECT/CT) provides additional clinical value for dectection of sentinel lymph nodes (SLNs) compared with intraoperative combined mapping in uterine and cervical malignancies.
Methods This was a retrospective study of prospectively collected data from patients with stages IA–IB2 cervical cancer (International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics (FIGO) 2018) or stage I endometrial cancer, who underwent preoperative SPECT/CT for SLN detection. All included patients had dual injection of technetium-99m (99mTc) with patent blue or indocyanine green.
Results A total of 171 patients were included with 468 SLNs detected during surgery: 146/171 patients (85.4%) had both radiotracer and blue injection whereas 25/171 patients (14.6%) had radiotracer and indocyanine green injected. The overall detection rate was 95.3%. The detection rate of SLN mapping was 74.9% for SPECT/CT, 90.6% for 99mTc, 91.8% for blue dye, and 100% for indocyanine green. Bilateral drainage was found in 140 patients (81.9%), detected by 99mTc in 105 patients (61.4%), by blue in 99 patients (67.3%), by indocyanine green in 23 patients (92%), and by SPECT/CT in 62 patients (36.4%). Atypical SLN locations were identified by SPECT/CT in 64 patients (37.4%), by 99mTc in 28 patients (16.4%), by blue in 17 patients (9.9%), and by indocyanine green in 8 patients (4.7%). Sensitivity and negative predictive value of SLN biopsy to detect lymph node metastasis using dual injection of different intraoperative combined techniques were 88.9% and 97.5%, respectively.
Conclusion SPECT/CT enhanced topographic delineation of SLN and more accurately identified drainage to atypical locations. Fluorescent SLN mapping using indocyanine green offered the highest SLN detection rate. When indocyanine green was used, SPECT/CT did not increase SLN detection, and did not add further information to improve lymph node localization and removal.
- Cervical Cancer
- Sentinel Lymph Node
- Surgical Oncology
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Contributors A-SN: conceptualization, data curation, methodology, and writing–original draft. MAA: conceptualization, data curation, methodology, and writing–review. FM: conceptualization, data curation, methodology, formal analyses, and writing–review. CI, CM-G, HL, SB, EC, YTLG, SM, and GF: conceptualization, writing–review. DQ: conceptualization, methodology, and writing–review and editing. EG: conceptualization, methodology, and writing–review. AM: conceptualization, project administration, methodology, and writing–review and editing.
Funding The authors have not declared a specific grant for this research from any funding agency in the public, commercial, or not-for-profit sectors.
Competing interests None declared.
Patient consent for publication Not required.
Ethics approval The study was approved by the institutional review board from our institution.
Provenance and peer review Not commissioned; externally peer reviewed.
Data availability statement All data relevant to the study are included in the article or uploaded as supplementary information.