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Role of radical hysterectomy in patients with early-stage high-grade neuroendocrine cervical carcinoma: a NeCTuR study

Abstract

Objective Patients with early-stage, high-grade neuroendocrine cervical carcinoma typically undergo radical hysterectomy with pelvic lymphadenectomy followed by adjuvant radiotherapy and/or chemotherapy. To explore the role of radical surgery in patients with this disease, who have a high likelihood of undergoing postoperative adjuvant therapy, we aimed to determine the rate of parametrial involvement and the rate of parametrial involvement without other indications for adjuvant treatment in these patients.

Methods We retrospectively studied patients in the Neuroendocrine Cervical Tumor Registry (NeCTuR) at our institution to identify those with International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics (FIGO) 2018 stage IA1-IB2, high-grade neuroendocrine cervical carcinoma who underwent up-front radical surgery with or without adjuvant therapy.

Results One hundred patients met the inclusion criteria. The median age was 35 years (range 22–65), and 51% (51/100) had pure high-grade neuroendocrine carcinoma. No patient had a tumor >4 cm or suspected parametrial or nodal disease before surgery. Ten patients (10%) had microscopic parametrial compromise in the final surgical specimens. Ninety-four (94%) patients underwent nodal assessment, and 19 (19%) had positive nodes. Ten patients underwent both sentinel lymph node biopsy and pelvic lymphadenectomy, and none had false-negative findings. Patients with parametrial compromise were more likely to have positive pelvic nodes (80% vs 12%, p<0.0001), and a positive vaginal margin (20% vs 1%, p=0.03). All patients with parametrial compromise had lymphovascular space invasion (100% vs 73%, p=0.10). Of the 100 patients, 95 (95%) were recommended adjuvant therapy and 89 (89%) were known to have received it. Adjuvant pelvic radiotherapy reduced the likelihood of local recurrence by 62%.

Conclusions In carefully selected patients with high-grade neuroendocrine cervical carcinoma, the rate of microscopic parametrial involvement is 10%. As most patients receive adjuvant treatment, we hypothesize that simple hysterectomy may be adequate when followed by adjuvant radiotherapy with concurrent cisplatin and etoposide followed by additional chemotherapy.

  • cervical cancer
  • cervix uteri
  • sentinel lymph node
  • surgical procedures
  • operative
  • neuroendocrine tumors

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