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Age and racial differences in the presentation of gestational trophoblastic neoplasia


Objective Gestational trophoblastic neoplasia are a group of diseases with few data given their rarity. The aim of this study was to determine the age and racial differences in the presentation and survival of patients with gestational trophoblastic neoplasia in the United States.

Methods Data were collected from the National Cancer Database from January 2004 to December 2014. Chi-square tests, Cox regression, and Kaplan–Meier models were performed. Demographic characteristics included age at diagnosis, race, insurance status, facility location and type, community median income, high school dropout rate, education, income, and population density data.

Results There were 1004 eligible patients including 64% white (n=645), 23% black (n=233), and 8.3% Asian patients (n=83). Median age was 30.8 (range 14–59) years. Stage I, II, III, IV, and unknown were diagnosed in 32%, 5.4%, 30%, 18%, and 15% of patients, respectively, with 5-year survival of 99%, 93%, 94%, 72%, and 95%, respectively (p<0.001). Compared with national birth rates, those with gestational trophoblastic neoplasia were overrepresented at younger (age 10–19 years: 8.2% vs 4.8%) and older ages (age 40–54 years: 17% vs 3.3%). The extremes of age at presentation were more pronounced in black patients with gestational trophoblastic neoplasia (age 10–19 years: 11% vs 6.9%, 40–54 years: 18% vs 3.2%), and black patients constituted 23% of patients compared with 15% of births nationwide. Some 59% of patients were treated at Academic/Research Programs. Only 6/448 (1.3%) facilities treated more than one patient per year, and only 9% (n=92) of patients were treated at one of these high-volume facilities. On multivariable analysis, older age, higher Charlson/Deyo co-morbidity score, and higher stage disease were independently associated with worse survival (all p<0.001).

Conclusions Gestational trophoblastic neoplasia was disproportionately higher in those at extremes of age and in black women as compared with United States national data. The lack of centralization of care justifies the need to develop regional centers of excellence for this rare malignancy.

  • genital neoplasms
  • female
  • trophoblastic disease
  • gestational trophoblastic disease
  • trophoblastic neoplasms

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