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Limited frequency of malignant change in lobular endocervical glandular hyperplasia
  1. Hisanori Kobara1,
  2. Tsutomu Miyamoto1,
  3. Hirofumi Ando1,
  4. Ryoichi Asaka1,
  5. Akiko Takatsu1,
  6. Ayumi Ohya2,
  7. Shiho Asaka3 and
  8. Tanri Shiozawa1
  1. 1Obstetrics and Gynecology, Shinshu University Graduate School of Medicine School of Medicine, Matsumoto, Nagano, Japan
  2. 2Radiology, Shinshu University Graduate School of Medicine School of Medicine, Matsumoto, Nagano, Japan
  3. 3Laboratory Medicine, Shinshu University Graduate School of Medicine School of Medicine, Matsumoto, Nagano, Japan
  1. Correspondence to Dr Tsutomu Miyamoto, Obstetrics and Gynecology, Shinshu University Graduate School of Medicine School of Medicine, Matsumoto 390-8621, Nagano, Japan; tmiya{at}


Introduction Although lobular endocervical glandular hyperplasia is a benign disorder of the uterine cervix, its potential as a precursor of minimal deviation adenocarcinoma has been reported. However, the natural history of the disease and the frequency of malignant change are not fully understood. We evaluated the frequency of malignant change of clinical lobular endocervical glandular hyperplasia and explored useful parameters indicating malignant change.

Methods The clinical courses of 175 patients with cervical multi-cystic lesions who visited Shinshu University Hospital between June 1995 and June 2019 were retrospectively analyzed. We examined the results of follow-up and outcomes of the patients diagnosed with lobular endocervical glandular hyperplasia and investigated the frequency of malignant transformation.

Results Of the 175 patients, 15, 84, and 76 were clinically diagnosed with suspected malignancy, suspected lobular endocervical glandular hyperplasia, and suspected nabothian cyst, respectively. Of these patients, 69 patients with suspected lobular endocervical glandular hyperplasia were followed, and 12 underwent hysterectomy after a mean follow-up of 57.1 (range: 3–154) months due to lesion enlargement (increase in tumor diameter of >20%) and/or worsening cytology. Of these 12 patients, two had lobular endocervical glandular hyperplasia with atypia and one had minimal deviation adenocarcinoma. Of 69 patients, the rate of malignant change was 1.4% (1/69). The growth rates of the lesions for these three patients during follow-up were significantly higher than those of nine patients who underwent surgery with lobular endocervical glandular hyperplasia without atypia and 48 follow-up cases of suspected lobular endocervical glandular hyperplasia. The cut-off value of the growth rate suggesting malignant transformation was 38.1% (84.6% sensitivity and 100% specificity). Tumor size and cytology did not change in the remaining 57 cases continuing follow-up.

Conclusion An increase in tumor size and worsening cytology are important parameters for detecting malignant transformation of lobular endocervical glandular hyperplasia during follow-up. However, the frequency of malignant change of this disease may be limited. These results suggest that conservative management may be an option for clinical lobular endocervical glandular hyperplasia.

  • adenocarcinoma
  • pathology
  • uterine cervical neoplasms

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  • Contributors HK: data collection, data analysis, methodology, drafting, and editing. TM: project administration, data collection, review, and editing. HA and RA: data collection, data analysis, and review. AT: project administration, data collection, and review. AO: radiologist, radiological diagnosis, and review. SA: pathologist, pathological diagnosis, and review. TS: project administration, data analysis, review, and editing.

  • Funding This work was supported by Grant-in-Aid for Scientific Research (KAKENHI) from the Japan Society for the Promotion of Science (JSPS), grant No 15K10712.

  • Competing interests None declared.

  • Patient consent for publication Not required.

  • Ethics approval The study was approved by the ethics committee of Shinshu University School of Medicine (No 4451), and the requirement for written informed consent was waived by the committee.

  • Provenance and peer review Not commissioned; externally peer reviewed.

  • Data availability statement Data are available upon reasonable request if the Ethics Committee of Shinshu University School of Medicine permits.

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