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Prophylactic human papillomavirus vaccination to prevent recurrence of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia: a meta-analysis
  1. Helena C Bartels1,
  2. James Postle1,
  3. Ailin C Rogers2 and
  4. Donal Brennan1,3
  1. 1Ireland East Hospital Gynaeoncology Group, Mater Misericordiae University Hospital, Dublin, Ireland
  2. 2Department of Surgery, Mater Misericordiae University Hospital, Dublin, Ireland
  3. 3School Of Medicine, University College Dublin, Dublin, Ireland
  1. Correspondence to Dr Helena C Bartels, Ireland East Hospital Gynaeoncology Group, Mater Misericordiae University Hospital, Dublin 7, D07 R2WY, Ireland; helenabartels91{at}


Objective The aim of this systematic review and meta-analysis was to review evidence supporting the use of prophylactic human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccines to influence the risk of recurrence of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia after surgical treatment.

Methods A systematic literature search was performed for publications reporting risk of recurrence of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia after surgical treatment in patients receiving HPV vaccination (either in the prophylactic or adjuvant setting). Comprehensive searches of six electronic databases (MEDLINE, Embase, Web of Science, PubMed, Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, and references of identified studies) from their inceptions were performed (English language only), and hand search reference lists were performed. Two independent reviewers applied inclusion and exclusion criteria to select manuscripts, with differences discussed and agreed by consensus. The literature search was performed using PRISMA (Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses) guidelines. Results were reported as mean differences or pooled odds ratios (OR) with 95% confidence intervals (95% CI).

Results A total of 5744 citations were reviewed and five studies comprising 3562 patients were selected for analysis. There were 1453 patients in the vaccinated group and 2109 in the placebo or unvaccinated group. The incidence of histologically confirmed cervical intraepithelial neoplasia 2+ was reduced in the vaccinated compared with the unvaccinated group (OR 0.51, 95% CI 0.35 to 0.74, p=0.0003). The number needed to treat (NNT) to prevent one recurrence was 43. Both pre-treatment vaccination (OR 0.48, 95% CI 0.25 to 0.94, p=0.03, NNT 38) and adjuvant vaccination (OR 0.53, 95% CI 0.34 to 0.81, p=0.004, NNT 40) reduced recurrence rates.

Conclusion Prophylactic or adjuvant HPV vaccination reduces the risk of recurrent cervical intraepithelial neoplasia 2+. These data support further investigation of its role as an adjuvant to surgical treatment.

  • surgical oncology
  • uterine cervical neoplasms

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  • HCB and JP contributed equally.

  • Contributors All named authors contributed to the manuscript.

  • Funding This research was funded by the Mater Private Hospital and the National Maternity Hospital Foundation. All authors who contributed to the manuscript are named authors.

  • Competing interests None declared.

  • Patient consent for publication Not required.

  • Provenance and peer review Not commissioned; externally peer reviewed.

  • Data availability statement Data are available in a public, open access repository. All data relevant to the study are included in the article or uploaded as supplementary information. The data presented in this paper are a meta-analysis of data already published and available at the references listed within the manuscript.