Article Text

other Versions

Download PDFPDF
Effects of HIV status on non-metastatic cervical cancer progression among patients in Lusaka, Zambia
  1. Mario Jesus Trejo1,
  2. Kennedy Lishimpi2,
  3. Mulele Kalima2,
  4. Catherine K Mwaba2,
  5. Lewis Banda2,
  6. Alick Chuba3,
  7. Eslone Chama3,
  8. Susan C Msadabwe2,
  9. Melanie L Bell1,
  10. Robin B Harris1,
  11. Elizabeth Jacobs1,4 and
  12. Amr Soliman5
  1. 1Epidemiology and Biostatistics, University of Arizona, Tucson, Arizona, USA
  2. 2Cancer Diseases Hospital, Lusaka, Zambia
  3. 3HIV/AIDS Program, University of Zambia University Teaching Hospital, Lusaka, Lusaka, Zambia
  4. 4University of Arizona Cancer Center, Tucson, Arizona, USA
  5. 5City University of New York School of Medicine, New York, New York, USA
  1. Correspondence to Mr Mario Jesus Trejo, Epidemiology and Biostatistics, University of Arizona Arizona Health Sciences Center, Tucson, AZ 85721, USA; mtrejo{at}


Introduction Sub-Saharan Africa has the highest global incidence of cervical cancer. Cervical cancer is the most common cause of cancer morbidity and mortality among women in Zambia. HIV increases the risk for cervical cancer and with a national Zambian adult HIV prevalence of 16%, it is important to investigate the impact of HIV on the progression of cervical cancer. We measured differences in cervical cancer progression between HIV-positive and HIV-negative patients in Zambia.

Methods This study included 577 stage I and II cervical cancer patients seen between January 2008 and December 2012 at the Cancer Diseases Hospital in Lusaka, Zambia. The inclusion criteria for records during the study period included known HIV status and FIGO stage I and II cervical cancer at initial date of registration in the Cancer Diseases Hospital. Medical records were abstracted for clinical and epidemiological data. Cancer databases were linked to the national HIV database to assess HIV status among cervical cancer patients. Logistic regression examined the association between HIV and progression, which was defined as metastatic or residual tumor after 3 months of initial treatment.

Results A total of 2451 cervical cancer cases were identified, and after exclusion criteria were performed the final analysis population totaled 537 patients with stage I and II cervical cancer with known HIV status (224 HIV-positive and 313 HIV-negative). HIV-positive women were, on average, 10 years younger than HIV-negative women who had a median age of 42, ranging between 25 and 72. A total of 416 (77.5%) patients received external beam radiation, and only 249 (46.4%) patients received the recommended treatment of chemotherapy, external beam radiation, and brachytherapy. Most patients were stage II (85.7%) and had squamous cell carcinoma (74.7%). HIV-positive patients were more likely to receive lower doses of external beam radiation than HIV-negative patients (47% vs 37%; P<0.05, respectively). The median total dose of external beam radiation for HIV-positive and HIV-negative patients was 46 Gy and 50 Gy, respectively. HIV positivity did not lead to tumor progression (25.4% in HIV-positive vs 23.9% in HIV-negative, OR 1.04, 95% CI [0.57, 1.92]). However, among a subset of HIV-positive patients, longer duration of infection was associated with lower odds of progression.

Conclusion There was no significant impact on non-metastatic cervical cancer progression by HIV status among patients in Lusaka, Zambia. The high prevalence of HIV among cervical cancer patients suggest that HIV-positive patients should be a primary target group for HPV vaccinations, screening, and early detection.

  • cervical cancer
  • cervix uteri
  • carcinoma

Statistics from

Request Permissions

If you wish to reuse any or all of this article please use the link below which will take you to the Copyright Clearance Center’s RightsLink service. You will be able to get a quick price and instant permission to reuse the content in many different ways.


  • Contributors MT performed the original study. MT, KL, MK, CM, LB, RBH, EJ, ASS designed the study. MT and MB conducted the analysis. MT, MK, AC, EC conducted the database linkage. MJT wrote the manuscript and all authors approved the final submission.

  • Funding The project described was supported by Grant Number R25CA112383 from the National Cancer Institute. The content is solely the responsibility of the authors and does not necessarily represent the official views of the National Cancer Institute or the National Institutes of Health.

  • Competing interests None declared.

  • Patient consent for publication Not required.

  • Provenance and peer review Not commissioned; externally peer reviewed.

  • Data availability statement The deidentified participant data are available upon reasonable request from the corresponding author.