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Risk factors for bloodstream infections in gynecological cancer

Abstract

Objective Infections are a threat to frail patients as they have a higher risk of developing serious complications from bloodstream pathogens. The aim of this study was to determine which factors can predict or diagnose bloodstream infections in patients with an underlying gynecologic malignancy.

Materials and Methods Between July 2016 and December 2017, 68 patients visiting the emergency room with an underlying gynecologic malignancy were evaluated. Variables concerning underlying disease, invasive procedures, and laboratory and clinical parameters were analyzed. Patients were divided into three groups based on their blood and urine specimens (positive blood specimens, positive urine specimens, and no positive specimens; patients who had both positive blood and urine specimens were included in the group of positive blood specimens). Risk factors for surgical site infections, recent (<30 days) surgery, and chemotherapy were studied separately.

Results 68 patients were included in the analysis. Mean age was 55.6 years (standard deviation 14.1). 44% of patients had ovarian cancer, 35% cervical cancer, 12% endometrial cancer, and 9% had other cancer types. In total, 96% of all patients had undergone surgery. Patients who had been treated with chemotherapy were at a higher risk of developing bloodstream infection (P=0.04; odds ratio (OR)=7.9). C reactive protein, bilirubin, and oxygen saturation (SO2) were significantly different between patients with an underlying infection and those who had none. Only C reactive protein maintained its significance in a linear model, with a cut-off of 180 mg/L (linear regression, P=0.03; OR=4).

Conclusions Chemotherapy is a risk factor for the development of bloodstream infections in patients with an underlying gynecologic malignancy; C reactive protein could be a useful tool in making this diagnosis.

  • sofa score
  • gynecology
  • cancer
  • sepsis
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