Introduction/Background Extracellular vesicles are a class of cell-derived submicron particles, mediating cellular crosstalk through micro-RNA (miRNA). MiRNA are a group of RNA molecules, composed of 15–22 nucleotides each, post-transcriptionally regulating genes. Complementary mRNAs – into which miRNAs hybridise – are involved in implantation, tumour suppression, proliferation, angiogenesis, and metastatization defining tumour microenvironment. Despite endometrial biopsy being a standardized option to diagnose cellular atypia, non-invasive biomarkers may avoid discomfort of invasive procedures. The present study aims to evaluate distribution and regulation of differently expressed miRNAs (DEMs) in the context of endometrial cancer.
Methodology Following the recommendations in the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) statement, we systematically searched PubMed, EMBASE, Scopus, Cochrane Library, and Science Direct databases in April 2023, adopting the string ‘Endometrial Neoplasms AND Exosomes’. We selected studies including patients with endometrial cancer, describing miRNA regulation in that context. Among DEMs, differences were considered significant between patients and controls when proteins showed a fold change of ±1.5.
Results 17 records fulfilled inclusion criteria: a total of 550 patients and 403 controls were analysed. Among upregulated miRNAs, the ones with the widest delta between endometrial cancer patients and controls – Relative Expression ≥ 2 Log2(ratio) – were: hsa-circ-0109046; hsa-circ-0002577; APOA1 (apolipoprotein A-I); HBB (haemoglobin subunit beta); CA1 (carbonic anhydrase 1); HBD (haemoglobin subunit delta); LPA (apolipoprotein A); SAA4 (serum amyloid A-4 protein); PF4V1 (platelet factor 4 variant); APOE (apolipoprotein E). Those can be found in serum through liquid biopsy. In parallel, the most downregulated miRNA in endometrial cancer patients compared to healthy subjects is miR-320a, to be found in endometrial specimens. Results are summarized in table 1.
Conclusion Although epigenetic regulation is unclear, upregulated miRNAs are feasible biomarkers to early detect endometrial cancer. MiRNAs modulation should be clarified during therapies or relapse, to plan targeted management.
Disclosures None declared.
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