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Vulvar and clitoral reconstruction using bilateral Singapore island perforator flap after anterior vulvectomy
  1. Anne-Sophie Navarro1,
  2. Thomas Meresse2,
  3. Martina Aida Angeles1,
  4. Hélène Leray1,
  5. Gwenael Ferron1 and
  6. Alejandra Martinez1
  1. 1 Department of Surgical Oncology, Institut Claudius Regaud – Institut Universitaire du Cancer de Toulouse (IUCT) – Oncopole, Toulouse, France
  2. 2 Department of Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, Institut Claudius Regaud – Institut Universitaire du Cancer de Toulouse (IUCT) – Oncopole, Toulouse, Languedoc-Roussillon-Midi, France
  1. Correspondence to Dr Alejandra Martinez, Institut Universitaire du Cancer Toulouse Oncopole, 31300 Toulouse, France; martinez.alejandra{at}

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Surgical treatment of vulvar cancer can lead an important defect to consider a direct skin closure without flap reconstruction. The reconstruction is challenging, as one has to maintain the important excretory and sexual functions. There are several options for reconstruction for perineal defect with local, regional, or distant flaps.1

We present the case of a 75-year-old patient diagnosed with squamous cell carcinoma of the vulva localized in the left labium minus, the prepuce of the clitoris, and the right labium minus, in contact with the urethra and vagina without invasion, requiring anterior vulvectomy with bilateral sentinel node. This surgery needed a multidisciplinary approach. First, the gynecological oncological surgeon proceeded to sentinel node excision and an en bloc resection of the tumor with security margins of at least 1 cm medially and laterally, and aponeurosis of perineal muscles for the deep margin. Then the plastic surgeon harvested and conformed the cutaneous flap after mapping the perforator with a pencil doppler. The patient was placed in the lithotomy position throughout the procedure.

Vulvar reconstruction was performed using a perforator-based island pedicle flap, the Singapore flap, also called the internal pudendal perforator flap, to recreate the internal face of the labia majora, vestibule, and fill the space of the labia minora. This flap is easily reproducible, and cutaneous innervation and vasculature is maintained with minimal donor site morbidity.2

At the same time, we performed clitoral reconstruction using the Foldes technique, which restores the clitoral anatomy in patients who have undergone genital mutilation.3 This procedure enabled elongation of the clitoris when the clitoral gland was sectioned.

Post-operative care was simple with wound drainage and bladder catheterization. The patient had no major complication.

The final anatomopathological analysis reported a 4 cm squamous cell carcinoma of the vulva of the right labium minus. The tumor was 1 mm from the urethra. Sentinel nodes were invaded, with micrometastasis in the right side and macrometastasis in the left side. After discussion, in accordance with the GROINSS-V II Trial, the patient received right inguinofemoral radiotherapy.4 We proceeded to inguinal lymphadenectomy in the left side.

In conclusion, bilateral Singapore island perforator flap is an interesting flap for vulvar reconstruction and wound closure, maintaining vulvar cosmesis with minimal morbidity of the donor site after anterior vulvectomy.

Figure 1

Bilateral Singapore island perforator flap after anterior vulvectomy for vulvar cancer.

Video 1

Data availability statement

Data are available upon request.

Ethics statements

Patient consent for publication

Ethics approval

This study involves human participants, but was exempted from ethical approval. Participants gave informed consent to participate in the study before taking part.



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  • Contributors A-SN: Conceptualization, video editing, writing-original draft. TM: Conceptualization, surgery and video recording, video editing, supervision, writing-review. MAA: Conceptualization, video editing, supervision, writing-review. HL: Conceptualization, video editing, writing-original draft. GF: Conceptualization, supervision, writing-review. AM: Guarantor, conceptualization, project administration, surgery and video recording, supervision, writing-review.

  • Funding The authors have not declared a specific grant for this research from any funding agency in the public, commercial or not-for-profit sectors.

  • Competing interests None declared.

  • Provenance and peer review Not commissioned; externally peer reviewed.