Objective To determine oncological outcomes and associated prognostic factors in women younger than 45 years diagnosed with non-epithelial ovarian cancer.
Methods A retrospective, multicenter Spanish study was performed including women with non-epithelial ovarian cancer younger than 45 years between January 2010 and December 2019. All types of treatments and stages at diagnosis with at least 12 months of follow-up were collected. Women with missing data, epithelial cancers, borderline or Krukenberg tumors, and benign histology, as well as patients with previous or concomitant cancer, were excluded.
Results A total of 150 patients were included in this study. The mean±SD age was 31.45±7.45 years. Histology subtypes were divided into germ cell (n=104, 69.3%), sex-cord (n=41, 27.3%), and other stromal tumors (n=5, 3.3%). Median follow-up time was 58.6 (range: 31.10–81.91) months. Nineteen (12.6%) patients presented with recurrent disease with a median time to recurrence of 19 (range: 6–76) months. Progression-free survival and overall survival did not significantly differ among histology subtypes (p=0.09 and 0.26, respectively) and International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics (FIGO) stage (I-II vs III-IV) with p=0.08 and p=0.67, respectively. Univariate analysis identified sex-cord histology with the lowest progression-free survival. Multivariate analysis showed that body mass index (BMI) (HR=1.01; 95% CI 1.00 to 1.01) and sex-cord histology (HR=3.6; 95% CI 1.17 to 10.9) remained important independent prognostic factors for progression-free survival. Independent prognostic factors for overall survival were BMI (HR=1.01; 95% CI 1.00 to 1.01) and residual disease (HR=7.16; 95% CI 1.39 to 36.97).
Conclusions Our study showed that BMI, residual disease, and sex-cord histology were prognostic factors associated with worse oncological outcomes in women younger than 45 years diagnosed with non-epithelial ovarian cancers. Even though the identification of prognostic factors is relevant to identify high-risk patients and guide adjuvant treatment, larger studies with international collaboration are essential to clarify oncological risk factors in this rare disease.
- Granulosa Cell Tumor
- Leydig Cell Tumor
- Sertoli-Leydig Cell Tumor
- Sex Cord-Gonadal Stromal Tumors
Data availability statement
All data relevant to the study are included in the article or uploaded as supplementary information.
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Contributors Conception or design of the work: IZ, MG, LM. Data collection: all authors. Data analysis and interpretation: IZ, MG, LM. Drafting the article: IZ, MG, LM. Critical revision of the article: all authors. Final approval of the version to be published: all authors. All authors contributed to the concept, design and writing of the manuscript, and are responsible for the overall content as guarantors.
Funding The authors have not declared a specific grant for this research from any funding agency in the public, commercial or not-for-profit sectors.
Competing interests None declared.
Provenance and peer review Not commissioned; externally peer reviewed.
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