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Updates on cervical cancer prevention


In 2020, approximately 604 127 patients were newly diagnosed with cervical cancer and 341 831 died of the disease worldwide. Unfortunately, 85–90% of new cases and deaths occur in less developed countries. It is well known that persistent human papillomavirus (HPV) infection is the main risk factor for developing the disease. There are more than 200 HPV genotypes identified, but the most important in public health are the high-risk HPV genotypes including HPV 16, 18, 31, 33, 35, 39, 45, 51, 52, 56, 58, and 59 due to their strong association with cervical cancer. Among these, genotypes 16 and 18 are responsible for about 70% of cervical cancer cases worldwide. Implementing systematic cytology-based screening, HPV screening, and HPV vaccination programs have successfully decreased the cervical cancer burden, particularly in developed countries. Although the etiological agent has been identified, we have seen the impact of well-conducted screening programs in developed countries, and we have available vaccines, the fight against this preventable disease has shown poor results globally. In November 2020 the World Health Organization launched its strategy to eliminate cervical cancer from the earth by 2130 (the goal is to achieve a global incidence lower than 4 per 100 000 women/year). The strategy aims to vaccinate 90% of girls before 15 years of age, to screen with a highly sensitive test (HPV-based) 70% of women at 35 and 45 years of age, and to provide proper treatment by trained personnel to 90% of women diagnosed with either cervical dysplasia or invasive cervical cancer. The objective of this review is to update the state of the art on primary and secondary prevention of cervical cancer.

  • Cervix Uteri

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