Gestational choriocarcinoma accounts for 5% of gestational trophoblastic neoplasms. Approximately 50%, 25%, and 25% of gestational choriocarcinoma occur after molar pregnancies, term pregnancies, and other gestational events, respectively. The FIGO scoring system categorizes patients into low (score 0 to 6) and high risk (score 7 or more) choriocarcinoma. Single-agent and multi-agent chemotherapy are used in low- and high-risk patients, respectively. Chemotherapy for localized disease has a goal of eradication of disease without surgery and is associated with favorable prognosis and fertility preservation. Most patients with gestational choriocarcinoma are cured with chemotherapy; however, some (<5.0%) will die as a result of multi-drug resistance, underscoring the need for novel approaches in this group of patients. Although there are limited data due to its rarity, the treatment response with immunotherapy is high, ranging between 50–70%. Novel combinations of immune checkpoint inhibitors with targeted therapies (including VEGFR-2 inhibitors) are under evaluation. PD-L1 inhibitors are considered a potential important opportunity for chemo-resistant patients, and to replace or de-escalate chemotherapy to avoid or minimize chemotherapy toxicity. In this review, the Rare Tumor Working Group and the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer evaluated the current landscape and further perspective in the management of patients diagnosed with gestational choriocarcinoma.
- Genital Neoplasms, Female
- Gestational Trophoblastic Disease
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Contributors Conceptualization: GB, BJM. Methodology: all authors. Project administration: PTR, BJM. Supervision: PTR, BJM. Writing – original draft: all authors. Writing – review and editing: all authors.
Funding The authors have not declared a specific grant for this research from any funding agency in the public, commercial or not-for-profit sectors.
Competing interests Competing interests not related to the topic of this investigation: GB: Novartis AG Pharma (C/A, H), Italian Ministry of Health (RG); NC: AstraZeneca (C/A, SH), Seattle Genetics (C/A, SH), MSD (SAB), Mersana (C/A, SH), eTheRNA immunotherapies NV (C/A, SH), Roche (travel expenses), Genmab (travel expenses), Amgen (travel expenses). IR-C: honoraria from AstraZeneca, Clovis, GSK/Tesaro, and PharmaMar; consulting/advisory board fees from AstraZeneca, Roche, Clovis, GSK/Tesaro, Genmab, PharmaMar, MSD, Mersana, Deciphera, OncXea, Esai, BMS, Novartis, and Pfizer; research funding from MSD; travel expenses from AstraZeneca, GSK, and Roche. YS: AstraZeneca (CA), GSK (CA). PW: Amgen (SH, RF, SAB), AstraZeneca (SH, RF, H, SAB), Clovis (SH, RF, SAB), Eisai (SH, SAB), GSK (SH, SAB), Lilly (SH, SAB), MSD (SH, RF, SAB), Novartis (SH, RF, SAB), Pfizer (SH, RF, SAB), Roche (SH, RF, H, SAB), TEVA (SH, SAB). NYLN: AstraZeneca (SH), Janssen (SH). KT: AstraZeneca (SH), Chugai (SH, RF), Eisai (SH), MSD (SH), Mochida (SH), Takeda (SH). RLC: Leadership: Onxeo; Stock and Other Ownership Interests: McKesson; Consulting or Advisory Role: Clovis Oncology, Genentech/Roche, AstraZeneca/MedImmune, Genmab, Tesaro, OncoMed, Sotio, Oncolytics, AbbVie/Stemcentrx, ImmunoGen, AbbVie, Agenus, Novocure, Merck, OncXerna Therapeutics, Alkermes, Gradalis, Regeneron; Research Funding: AstraZeneca/MedImmune, Esperance Pharmaceuticals, Array BioPharma, Clovis Oncology, Johnson & Johnson, Merck, Roche/Genentech, Abbott/AbbVie, ImmunoGen (Inst), Mirati Therapeutics (Inst), Amgen (Inst), Pfizer (Inst), Lilly (Inst), Regeneron (Inst); Travel, Accommodations, Expenses: Merck, AstraZeneca/MedImmune, Array BioPharma, Clovis Oncology, Roche/Genentech, Research to Practice, GOG Foundation, Sotio, Vaniam GroupTE: Takeda (SH), Astra Zeneca (SH), Eisai (SH), Chugai Pharma (SH, RF), MSD (SH), Mochida (SH). DL: AstraZeneca (H, CA), Clovis (H, CA, RF), GSK/Tesaro (H, CA), Roche (CA), Genmab (CA), PharmaMar (CA, RF), MSD (CA, RF), Esai (CA), Merck Serono (CA), Novartis (CA), and PharmaMar (H); consulting/advisory board fees from AstraZeneca, Roche, Clovis, GSK/Tesaro. NC, advisory board membership for AstraZeneca, Clovis Oncology, Eisai, GSK, Immunogen, Mersana, MSD/Merck, Nuvation Bio, Onxerna, Pfizer, Pieris, Roche; fees as an invited speaker for AstraZeneca, Novartis, Clovis Oncology, GSK, MSD/Merck; institutional research grants from AstraZeneca, and Roche. BJM: AstraZeneca (SH, SAB), GSK (SH, SAB), Incyte (SAB), Merck (SH, SAB), Roche/Genentech (SH, SAB), Eisai (SAB), GOG-Foundation (E), US Oncology (E).
Provenance and peer review Not commissioned; externally peer reviewed.
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