Introduction/Background Endometrial cancer is the most common malignant gynecologic tumor in developed countries. Over the past few years, there has been an increase in the value of the mortality rate. Unfortunately we still do not have a certain, non-invasive diagnostic method that could identify the early stages of the disease. The selection of proteins assessed in the study was made on the basis of the epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT) phenomenon in neoplasms. E-cadherin is a epithelial glycoprotein responsible for the formation and maintenance of a normal tissue structure, responsible for maintaining coherence between epithelial cells. The mesenchymal protein N-cadherin, which is involved in cell proliferation, their survival and morphological transformation. The aim of the study was to evaluate the expression of E-cadherin and N-cadherin in the endocervium and endometrium in patients with endometrial cancer Due to the ease of obtaining the material from the cervix during cytological screening, the expression of selected proteins might be used as a predictive factor in endometrial cancer.
Methodology The study was performed on group of 101 patients with type I and II endometrial carcinoma using immunohistochemical methods.
Results Our results showed that both cadherins were expressed in the endocervium. In endometrial cancer type I, no significant differences were found in the expression of cadherins between the tumor and the cervix. It is possible to suspect an evenly ongoing neoplastic process both in the primary site and in the cervix. Statistically significant differences in the results turned out to be in the case of type II endometrial cancer, where a higher cadherin expression was noted in the tumor mass compared to the cervix, which suggests a greater dynamics of the EMT process in the tumor itself than in the cervix.
Conclusion Our results may have significant clinical outcomes in the diagnosis of endometrial cancer.
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