Objectives Verrucous vulvar carcinoma (VC) is an uncommon and distinct histologic subtype of squamous cell carcinoma (SCC). The goals of this study were to analyze patient data from the National Cancer Database (NCDB) to quantitate the incidence of VC and to investigate the effects of patient and tumor demographic factors and treatment regimens on overall survival (OS).
Methods Patients diagnosed with vulvar SCC or VC between the years of 2004 and 2016 were identified in the NCDB. OS was assessed with Kaplan-Meier curves and the log-rank test. Construction of a Cox model compared survival after controlling for confounding variables.
Results The reported incidence of SCC of the vulva has significantly increased since 2004 (p < 0.0001). In contrast, the incidence of VC has remained stable since 2004 (p = 0.344). Compared to SCC, VC was significantly more likely to be diagnosed in older women (p < 0.0001) and treated with surgery alone (p < 0.0001). However, on propensity score weighted analysis there was a trend toward improved OS in women with VC compared to those with SCC (p = 0.0794). Multivariable Cox survival analysis showed an improvement in OS in VC patients treated with both primary site and regional lymph node surgery compared to primary site surgery alone (HR 0.67, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.46 – 0.97, p = 0.0357).
Conclusions Verrucous carcinoma is more likely to present in women at an older age. Regional lymph node surgery in addition to primary site surgery significantly improves OS in VC patients.
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