Introduction/Background*Incidence rates of endometrial cancer are increasing over the time in all ages, corresponding with an increase in the young women. Multiple risk factors have been identified such as unopposed oestrogens, nulliparity, obesity, family history of malignancy, polycystic ovaries, diabetes, hypertension etc. The objective of study was to conduct clinic-pathological analysis and predict the risk factors for development of endometrial cancer in reproductive age group women in Indian population and to identify preventive measures for this group.
Methodology A retrospective review of women with endometrial cancer was performed. Medical records analysed for histopathologically confirmed and treated endometrial carcinoma patients between February 2012 and August 2020. Out of 129, only 10 women were premenopausal and under the age of 45 years at the time of diagnosis. Data were abstracted regarding age, parity, diabetes, hypertension, poly cystic ovaries, body mass index (BMI), tumour histology, grade, stage, and survival. Clinical and pathological characteristic were compared and statistical analyses were performed using SPSS version 22.0.
Result(s)*The mean age at the time of diagnosis was 38.50 years (range 34.50-41.25) and mean BMI (kg/m2) was 30.55 (range 27.23- 38.45). 50% patients were obese (BMI >30) and 40% were overweight (BMI-25-30). Only 5 out 10 women had nulliparity however, 70% women had history of polycystic ovaries, confirmed with ultrasound or on histopathological specimen. Family history was also found to be strongly associated with endometrial cancer with 70% prevalence rate. The prevalence of diabetes mellitus, hypertension and hypothyroidism were 20%, 10% and 10% respectively. Seven patients (70%) had well differentiated tumours and had stage 1A disease. Only 20% patients had completed 5-years disease free interval, one patient was expired with recurrence and stage 3 disease, while one women was lost to follow up after surgery.
Conclusion*We conclude that the obesity, family history and polycystic ovaries are strongly associated risk factors for endometrial cancer in women aged 45 years or younger. We could not find any significant association with medical disorders such as diabetes and hypertension. Nulliparity seems to have less strong relationship with development of endometrial cancer. Majority of young patients have early stage disease with well differentiated tumours and favourable histology.
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