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Oncologic and obstetric outcomes after simple conization for fertility-sparing surgery in FIGO 2018 stage IB1 cervical cancer

Abstract

Objective Conization/simple trachelectomy is feasible in patients with early-stage cervical cancer. Retrospective data suggest that conization with negative lymph nodes could be a safe option for these patients. This study aims to provide oncologic and obstetric outcomes of a large series of patients with 2018 International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics (FIGO) stage IB1 cervical cancer managed by conization.

Methods Patients with early cervical cancer and a desire to preserve fertility who underwent conization and pelvic lymphadenectomy from January 1993 to December 2019 in two Italian centers were included. Inclusion criteria were: age >18 years and ≤45 years, 2018 FIGO stage IB1, no prior irradiation or chemotherapy, absence of pre-operative radiologic evidence of nodal metastases, a strong desire to preserve fertility, and absence of concomitant malignancies. We excluded patients with confirmed infertility, neuroendocrine tumor, clear cell or mucinous carcinoma.

Results A total of 42 patients were included. The median age was 32 years (range 19–44) and median tumor size was 11 mm (range 8–20). Squamous cell carcinoma was found in 27 (64.3%). Grade 3 tumor was present in 7 (16.7%) patients and lymphovascular space involvement was detected in 15 (35.7%). At a median follow-up of 54 months (range 1–185), all patients were alive without evidence of disease. In the entire series three patients experienced recurrence resulting in an overall recurrence rate of 7.1%. All the recurrences occurred in the pelvis (2 in the cervix and 1 in the lymph nodes), resulting in a 3-year disease-free survival of 91.6%. Twenty-two (52%) patients tried to conceive; 18 pregnancies occurred in 17 patients and 12 live births were reported (6 pre-term and 6 term pregnancies). Two miscarriages were recorded, one first trimester and one second trimester fetal loss.

Conclusions Our study showed that conization is feasible for the conservative management of women with stage IB1 cervical cancer desiring fertility. Oncologic outcomes appear favorable in this series of patients. Future prospective studies will hopefully provide further insight into this important question.

  • cervical cancer

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