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Role of adjuvant therapy after radical hysterectomy in intermediate-risk, early-stage cervical cancer

Abstract

Objective Adjuvant treatment remains a controversial issue for intermediate-risk cervical cancer. The aim of this study was to compare the prognosis of patients who underwent no adjuvant treatment, pelvic radiotherapy alone, or concurrent chemoradiotherapy after radical hysterectomy for intermediate-risk, early-stage cervical cancer.

Methods Patients with stage IB1–IIA2 (FIGO 2009) cervical squamous cell carcinoma treated with radical hysterectomy and pelvic lymph node dissection, with negative lymph nodes, surgical margins, or parametria, who had combined intermediate risk factors as defined in the Gynecologic Oncology Group trial (GOG-92; Sedlis criteria) were included in the study. Recurrence-free survival and disease-specific survival were compared.

Results Of 861 patients included in the analysis, 85 patients received no adjuvant treatment, 283 patients were treated with radiotherapy, and 493 patients with concurrent chemoradiotherapy. After a median follow-up of 63 months (IQR 45 to 84), adjuvant radiotherapy or concurrent chemoradiotherapy was not associated with a survival benefit compared with no adjuvant treatment. The 5-year recurrence-free survival and corresponding disease-specific survival were 87.1%, 84.2%, 89.6% (p=0.27) and 92.3%, 87.7%, 91.4% (p=0.20) in the no adjuvant treatment, radiotherapy alone, and concurrent chemoradiotherapy groups, respectively. Lymphovascular space invasion was the only independent prognostic factor for both recurrence-free survival and disease-specific survival. Additionally, significant heterogeneity exists in Sedlis criteria: higher risk of relapse (HR=1.88; 95% CI 1.19 to 2.97; p=0.007) and death (HR=2.36; 95% CI 1.41 to 3.95; p=0.001) occurred in patients with lymphovascular space invasion and deep 1/3 stromal invasion compared with no lymphovascular space invasion, middle or deep 1/3 stromal invasion, and tumor diameter ≥4 cm.

Conclusions Radical hysterectomy alone without adjuvant treatment may achieve a favorable survival for patients with intermediate-risk cervical cancer as defined by Sedlis criteria. Criteria for adjuvant treatment in patients without high risk factors need to be further evaluated.

  • cervical cancer

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