Article Text

Download PDFPDF

ICON 9—an international phase III randomized study to evaluate the efficacy of maintenance therapy with olaparib and cediranib or olaparib alone in patients with relapsed platinum-sensitive ovarian cancer following a response to platinum-based chemotherapy
  1. Osnat Elyashiv1,
  2. Jonathan Ledermann1,2,
  3. Gita Parmar1,
  4. Laura Farrelly1,
  5. Nicholas Counsell1,
  6. Amanda Feeney1,
  7. Fatima El-Khouly3,
  8. Ian Macdonald1,
  9. Andreia Neto1,
  10. Esther Arthur-Darkwa1,
  11. Eva Burnett1,
  12. Gordon C Jayson4,5,
  13. Linda Mileshkin6,
  14. Charlie Gourley7 and
  15. Shibani Nicum8
  1. 1 University College CRUK and UCL Cancer Trials Centre, UCL Cancer Institute, London, UK
  2. 2 UCL Cancer Institute, University College, London, UK
  3. 3 Barking Havering and Redbridge University Hospitals NHS Trust, Romford, UK
  4. 4 Medical Oncology, The Christie NHS Foundation Trust, Manchester, UK
  5. 5 Division of Cancer Science, The University of Manchester Faculty of Biology Medicine and Health, Manchester, UK
  6. 6 Department of Medical Oncology, Peter MacCallum Cancer Centre, Melbourne, Victoria, Australia
  7. 7 Nicola Murray Centre for Ovarian Cancer Research, CRUK Edinburgh Centre, MRC IGMM, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh, UK
  8. 8 Oxford University Hospitals NHS Trust, Oxford, UK
  1. Correspondence to Dr Osnat Elyashiv, University College CRUK and UCL Cancer Trials Centre, UCL Cancer Institute, London WC1E 6DD, UK; osnatelyashiv{at}


Background Two novel biological agents—cediranib targeting angiogenesis, and olaparib targeting DNA repair processes—have individually led to an improvement in ovarian cancer control. The aim of ICON9 is to investigate the combination of cediranib and olaparib maintenance in recurrent ovarian cancer following platinum-based therapy.

Primary objective To assess the efficacy of maintenance treatment with olaparib in combination with cediranib compared with olaparib alone following a response to platinum-based chemotherapy in women with platinum-sensitive ovarian, fallopian tube or peritoneal cancer during first relapse.

Study hypothesis Maintenance therapy with cediranib and olaparib in combination is associated with improved patient outcomes compared with olaparib alone.

Trial design International phase III randomized controlled trial. Following a response to platinum-based chemotherapy patients are randomized 1:1 to either oral olaparib and cediranib (intervention arm) or oral olaparib alone (control arm).

Major inclusion criteria Patients with a known diagnosis of high grade serous or endometrioid carcinoma of the ovary, fallopian tube or peritoneum, progressing more than 6 months after first-line platinum-based chemotherapy, who have responded to second-line platinum-based chemotherapy.

Primary endpoints Progression-free and overall survival. Co-primary endpoints to be assessed using a fixed-sequence gatekeeping approach: (1) progression-free survival, all patients; (2) progression-free survival, BRCA wild type; (3) overall survival, all patients; (4) overall survival, BRCA wild type.

Sample size 618 patients will be recruited.

Estimated dates for completing accrual and presenting results Accrual is expected to be completed in 2024 with presentation of results in 2025.

Trial registration NCT03278717.

  • ovarian cancer
  • medical oncology
  • fallopian tube neoplasms
  • peritoneal neoplasms

Statistics from

Request Permissions

If you wish to reuse any or all of this article please use the link below which will take you to the Copyright Clearance Center’s RightsLink service. You will be able to get a quick price and instant permission to reuse the content in many different ways.


Worldwide, there are an estimated 295 000 patients with ovarian cancer and 184 000 deaths related to the disease recorded annually1. Platinum-based chemotherapy remains the cornerstone of treatment, but despite advances in treatment, about 80% of women with advanced cancer have a recurrence that is ultimately fatal. Retreatment with platinum-based therapy in patients with relapsing disease more than 6 months after first-line treatment is considered a standard of care. This approach delays death but the median survival after first relapse is about 21 months.2

Maintenance therapy that continues beyond chemotherapy is an important area of research to extend the chemotherapy-free interval and prolong disease control. Bevacizumab, a vascular endothelial growth factor A inhibitor, was the first molecularly targeted therapy to be approved for the treatment of epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) given with platinum-based chemotherapy and as maintenance following treatment of first-line and recurrent disease3. Cediranib is a potent oral broad-spectrum tyrosine kinase inhibitor, principally inhibiting vascular endothelial growth factor receptor (VEGFR TKI-1/2/3). It has demonstrated significant anti-tumor activity and delayed tumor progression when given as maintenance therapy in women with recurrent ovarian cancer4. Other VEGFR TKIs have shown similar positive effects,3 however none of them are licensed for treatment of EOC.

Over the past 15 years, research with oral inhibitors of poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) have led to significant changes in the management of recurrent ovarian cancer. Initial trials of maintenance therapy with olaparib following a response to platinum-based chemotherapy demonstrated significant improvements in progression-free survival and a delay in the re-use of chemotherapy. The benefit was particularly marked in tumors with a BRCA mutation, but there was also a benefit in patients with BRCA wild-type tumors.5 6 The improvement in progression-free survival, irrespective of a BRCA mutation, has been confirmed in trials with niraparib and rucaparib7. Some of these patients have remained on olaparib for several years without needing further chemotherapy.8 9 However, progression of disease occurs in most patients and other strategies are needed to improve the effectiveness of maintenance therapy.

Defective repair of DNA damage by homologous recombination (HRD) is the hallmark for sensitivity to PARP inhibitors. Preclinical data suggest that anti-angiogenic drugs might increase the degree of HRD and thus increase the effectiveness of PARP inhibitors.10 11 This is supported by clinical studies using either cediranib or bevacizumab in combination with olaparib or niraparib, respectively. In two randomized phase II studies, and a recent phase III trial, the addition of the anti-angiogenic drug to olaparib or niraparib led to longer progression-free survival than with the PARP inhibitor alone.12–14 It should be noted that none of these studies investigated this combination as maintenance following a response to platinum-based chemotherapy. In the ICON9 trial we hypothesize that maintenance therapy with a combination of olaparib and cediranib may be more effective than single agent olaparib in controlling cancer growth following a response to platinum-based chemotherapy.


Trial design

ICON9 is an international, phase III, open-label randomized (1:1) trial of olaparib with or without the addition of cediranib in women with relapsed ovarian cancer progressing more than 6 months after first-line chemotherapy. The study was approved by the national and local research ethics committee and written informed consent was obtained from all patients. Potential trial participants are registered following three to four cycles of second-line platinum-based chemotherapy to permit tumor BRCA testing of archival tumor specimens, a key stratification factor. Patients with RECIST criteria or a GCIG CA125 (if non-measurable disease) response at the end of a minimum of four cycles of chemotherapy are randomized, and treatment is continued unless there is unacceptable toxicity or progression of disease so that the patient is no longer deriving clinical benefit. Figure 1 shows the trial schema.

Currently there are 42 sites recruiting patients for the ICON9 trial in the UK, Australia and New Zealand with further international sites due to open shortly.


Inclusion criteria for registration and randomization are outlined in Table 1. All patients must have adequate bone marrow, renal and liver function as well as adequate blood pressure and thyroid function control. CA125 criteria are described in Table 1.

Table 1

Inclusion criteria


The co-primary endpoints are progression-free survival, measured from the date of randomization to the date of objective progression (investigator assessed using RECIST v1.1) or date of death from any cause, and overall survival measured from the date of randomization to the date of death from any cause. Patients without an event will be censored at the date they were last seen in clinic or known to be alive. Progression-free survival and overall survival will be assessed using a fixed-sequence gatekeeping approach for all patients and for BRCAwt patients.

Secondary endpoints include toxicity, compliance, investigator assessed response (RECIST v1.1 and/or CA-125) at 16 weeks of treatment, progression-free survival and overall survival measured from the start of second-line chemotherapy, progression-free survival by CA-125 (GCIG criteria), time from randomization to start of second subsequent treatment or death from any cause (TSST), quality of life (EORTC QLQ-C30 and OV28), and cost effectiveness using EQ-5D-5L for health economic evaluation.

Sample size

Progression-free survival, determined radiologically, and overall survival are co-primary endpoints. A total of 344 patients are required to detect a progression-free survival HR of 0.70 with 90% power from a median of 8.4 months in the control arm, and 588 patients are required to detect an overall survival HR of 0.75 with 80% power from a median of 29.8 months in the control arm. Assuming two-sided 5% significance levels, 36 months of accrual and 36 months of additional follow-up with up to 5% dropout, the total target sample size is 618.

These endpoints will be analyzed using a fixed-sequence gatekeeping approach: (1) progression-free survival, all patients; (2) progression-free survival, BRCAwt; (3) overall survival, all patients; (4) overall survival, BRCAwt. To detect a progression-free survival HR of 0.70 with 90% power and overall survival HR of 0.70 with 80% power within the BRCAwt subgroup, the number of BRCAmut patients may be capped at around 250 to allow at least 350 BRCAwt patients to be recruited. No formal interim analyses are planned as part of the design.

Randomization and blinding

Following registration, and completion of chemotherapy, patients meeting eligibility criteria will be randomized in a 1:1 ratio to one of two arms:

Arm 1—oral olaparib 300 mg tablets twice daily and cediranib 20 mg tablets once daily;

Arm 2—oral olaparib 300 mg tablets twice daily.

Minimization will be used to allocate patients to either treatment arm, with the following stratification factors: 6–12 versus more than 12 month platinum-free interval (defined by the time following completion of first-line platinum-based chemotherapy); surgery versus no surgery at relapse prior to chemotherapy; prior versus no prior bevacizumab therapy; BRCAwt versus BRCAmut (germline and/or somatic); country.

There is no placebo as the toxicity profile of the two agents is so distinct. A blinded independent clinical review (BICR) of a proportion of CT/MRI scans will be undertaken for quality control purposes and to ensure that scans are reported consistently.

Statistical methods

Survival analyses with Kaplan-Meier plots and Cox regression analyses to produce HRs will be performed using a stratified log-rank test on an intention-to-treat basis, using a fixed-sequence testing strategy (as detailed above). If non-proportional hazards are observed, an analysis of restricted mean survival times will be presented. Multivariable Cox regression will be used to adjust for the randomization stratification factors, and to analyze treatment effects within these subgroups, including tests for interaction.


Despite the significant improvements seen using PARP inhibitor maintenance therapy in recurrent EOC, relapse eventually occurs in the majority of patients, posing a significant clinical challenge. This is particularly the case for patients without BRCA mutations where only 11% remain progression free at 6 years.5 One approach to delay progression and improve survival is to combine two treatments that individually have been shown to improve the progression-free survival of women with recurrent ovarian cancer.

Anti-angiogenic therapy with bevacizumab, given with chemotherapy and as maintenance, has demonstrated an improvement in progression-free survival. Similarly, a benefit in progression-free survival was seen in ICON6, an international phase III trial in which cediranib, an oral anti-angiogenic tyrosine kinase inhibitor, was added to platinum-based chemotherapy and continued as maintenance treatment.4 There is a clear rationale for combining these anti-angiogenic drugs with PARP inhibitors; they have different modes of action and synergistic activity has been demonstrated in vitro11. In a randomized phase II study, a 6-month improvement in progression-free survival was seen following treatment with a combination of olaparib and cediranib compared with olaparib alone in women with platinum-sensitive recurrent ovarian cancer15. An unplanned exploratory analysis suggested that the benefit of the combination therapy appeared greatest in the BRCAwt population.

ICON9 has been designed to build on the hypothesis that cediranib may increase the activity of olaparib and that this might best be observed in a maintenance setting. Trials with olaparib in recurrent ovarian cancer have shown that in a treatment setting it is difficult to demonstrate superiority of a PARP inhibitor over chemotherapy16, or indeed the combination of cediranib and olaparib14. The approach in ICON9 is to start combination therapy after platinum-based chemotherapy that has resulted in a reduction in tumor burden. As maintenance therapy with a PARP inhibitor is now a standard of care, all patients in ICON9 will receive olaparib and half will have cediranib in addition. Randomization will be stratified on BRCA status, limiting the total number of patients with a BRCA mutation as we hypothesize that a larger effect will be seen in the BRCAwt patients. Similarly, there will be stratification of patients who had surgery at relapse, as they are likely to have minimal residual disease as they enter chemotherapy and the trial.

Quality of life assessments and patient-reported outcomes are important secondary endpoints in ICON9 as the potential benefits of maintenance therapy must be balanced with their tolerability and acceptability to patients who may remain on treatment for a number of years. Within the ICON6 trial the cediranib discontinuation rate was 30% during the initial combination with chemotherapy, but this fell significantly to 10% during the maintenance phase (cediranib alone). A lowering of the initial starting dose of cediranib from 30 to 20 mg also helped to reduce toxicity, and since preclinical data suggest similar efficacy, 20 mg is the starting dose used in the ICON9 trial. From previous experience in ICON6, early intervention to manage diarrhea will be used to reduce severe side effects and discontinuation of cediranib.

Collection of archival tissue for prospective BRCA testing and later translational studies is a key element of the ICON9 trial. These studies will, for example, assess HRD genes, signatures for angiogenesis and other molecular subtyping to gain further insight into the factors that influence the activity of olaparib and the combination of cediranib with olaparib.

A potential modification to the ICON9 trial design in order to extend the accrual period and bring the trial in line with other recently published trials of PARP inhibitors, where progression-free survival has been the primary outcome, is currently under consideration by the investigators and funders.The primary results of ICON9 are expected in 2024/5.



  • Contributors OE, JAL: original draft; SN, JAL, LF, AF, NC, FEK, GCJ, LM, CG: study conception, design, and methodology, supervision; NC: statistics; LF, AF: project management; GP, IM: trial management; AN, EAD: data collection; EB: patient representative. All authors revised, edited, and approved the final version of the protocol.

  • Funding The trial has public funding in the UK from Cancer Research UK (A19714 CRUK/15/074). In Australia, the ICON9 trial was awarded through the Priority-driven Collaborative Cancer Research Scheme and is funded by Cancer Australia (1100619). AstraZeneca are providing trial drugs (cediranib and olaparib) as well as support for translational research. AstraZeneca are also providing some support for international participation, although each group is required to obtain local funding to manage and co-ordinate the trial within their country. The co-ordination, management and oversight of the trial are provided by the sponsor UCL and the Cancer Research UK and UCL Cancer Trials Centre. IQVIA are conducting on-site monitoring on behalf of the sponsor. The co-ordination of the trial in Australia and New Zealand is provided by Australia New Zealand Gynaecological Oncology Group (ANZGOG).

  • Competing interests None declared.

  • Patient consent for publication Not required.

  • Provenance and peer review Not commissioned; externally peer reviewed.

  • Data availability statement No data are available.