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Prevalence and predictors of HIV screening in invasive cervical cancer: a 10 year cohort study
  1. Jill Alldredge1,
  2. Marie-Claire Leaf2,
  3. Priya Patel2,
  4. Katherine Coakley2,
  5. Teresa Longoria2,
  6. Christine McLaren3 and
  7. Leslie M Randall2
  1. 1 University of Colorado, Aurora, Colorado, USA
  2. 2 University of California Irvine School of Medicine, Orange, California, USA
  3. 3 Department of Epidemiology, University of California Irvine School of Medicine, Orange, California, USA
  1. Correspondence to Dr Jill Alldredge, University of Colorado, Aurora, Colorado, USA; jillalldredge{at}


Background Invasive cervical carcinoma is associated with a human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) prevalence of >0.1%, and screening is recommended and cost-effective for cancer populations exceeding this threshold. HIV status is also prognostic for cancer-specific survival, but compliance with HIV screening is poor in the USA and abroad.

Objectives This study aims to describe HIV screening practices in a US comprehensive cancer center. To guide quality improvement, we identify characteristics which may predict compliance with screening.

Study design Women treated for invasive cervical cancer from January 2007 to December 2017 were identified by local cancer registry and billing data. We assessed age, race, ethnicity, insurance status, histology, stage, pregnancy, drug use, and HIV testing status. Univariate logistical regression was performed to assess predictors of completed HIV screening.

Results Of 492 eligible women, the cumulative screening rate was 7.6%. Race, ethnicity, histology, and funding source were not predictive of screening. Every 5 year increase in age was associated with a lower chance of screening (OR 0.86, p=0.015), as was earlier stage at diagnosis (OR 0.43, p=0.017). Pregnancy during, or antecedent to, invasive cervical cancer diagnosis was significantly more predictive of screening compliance (OR 10.57, p=0.0007). Only 8/492 (1.6%) women in the cohort were active or former drug users, but within this group HIV screening was performed more frequently (OR 22.7, p<0.0001).

Conclusion Despite US and international recommendations for HIV screening in AIDS-defining cancers, compliance remains low. In our centers, factors including earlier age, advanced stage, active pregnancy at diagnosis, and any drug use history were predictive of greater compliance with screening. These data will inform a tailored intervention to improve compliance with HIV screening in our population.

  • cervical cancer

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  • Contributors JKA, MCL, PAP, TCL and KEC contributed to data collection and manuscript preparation. CEMc completed all statistical analyses. LMR supervised all data collection, statistics and manuscript preparation.

  • Funding This study was funded by University of California Irvine Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology.

  • Competing interests None declared.

  • Patient consent for publication Obtained.

  • Provenance and peer review Not commissioned; externally peer reviewed.

  • Data availability statement No data are available. A RedCap database of the information included in this study is available upon request with institutional IRB approval through the University of California Irvine.