Background Surgery for gynecological cancer involves highly invasive and complex procedures potentially associated with various complications, which can cause extended hospital stays and delay of subsequent therapy, with a detrimental effect on the prognosis. The aim of this study was to explore and define the predictors of severe postoperative complications in patients undergoing surgery for gynecologic cancer.
Methods Patients undergoing surgery for gynecologic cancers were analyzed prospectively from October 2015 through January 2017. Using validated assessment tools preoperatively, we assessed comorbidities, performance status, quality of life, nutritional and body composition by bioelectrical impedance analysis, and the surgical data of each patient. Surgical complications were graded using the Clavien-Dindo criteria. Using stepwise logistic regression models, we identified predictive markers for postoperative complications.
Results Of the 226 enrolled patients, 40 (17.7%) experienced a grade ≥IIIb complication according to the Clavien-Dindo criteria. In the regression analysis, overweight/obesity (body mass index >25) (OR 6.41, 95% CI 2.38 to 17.24; p<0.001) and impaired physical functioning defined by a quality of life questionnaire (OR 4.19, 95% CI 1.84 to 9.50; p=0.001) emerged as significant predictors of postoperative complications. Moreover, postoperative complications were predicted by phase angle of bioelectrical impedance analysis <4.75° (OR 3.11, 95% CI 1.35 to 7.16; p=0.008) and Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group (ECOG) performance status >1 (OR 2.51, 95% CI 1.06 to 5.92; p=0.04). Intraoperative factors associated with higher risk of postoperative complications were increased use of norepinephrine (>11 µg/kg/min) (OR 5.59, 95% CI 2.16 to 14.44; p<0.001) and performance of large bowel resection (OR 4.28, 95% CI 1.67 to 10.97; p=0.002).
Conclusion In patients undergoing surgery for gynecological cancer, preoperative evaluation of performance status according to ECOG, domains of quality of life and nutritional status, as well as intraoperative monitoring of risk factors, might help to identify patients at high risk for severe postoperative complications, and thus reduce surgical morbidity and mortality.
- gynecologic surgical procedures
- ovarian cancer
- postoperative complications
- quality of life (PRO)/palliative care
- surgical procedures
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