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Pre-operative neoadjuvant chemotherapy cycles and survival in newly diagnosed ovarian cancer: what is the optimal number? A Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center Team Ovary study
  1. Ying L Liu1,
  2. Qin C Zhou2,
  3. Alexia Iasonos2,
  4. Dennis S Chi3,
  5. Oliver Zivanovic3,
  6. Yukio Sonoda3,
  7. Ginger Gardner3,
  8. Vance Broach3,
  9. Roisin O'Cearbhaill1,
  10. Jason A Konner1,
  11. Rachel Grisham1,
  12. Carol A Aghajanian1,
  13. Nadeem R Abu-Rustum3,
  14. William Tew1 and
  15. Kara Long Roche3
  1. 1 Medicine, Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York, USA
  2. 2 Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York, USA
  3. 3 Surgery, Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York, USA
  1. Correspondence to Dr Kara Long Roche, Surgery, Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York, USA; longrock{at}mskcc.org

Abstract

Objective Although trials of neoadjuvant chemotherapy in ovarian cancer use 3 neoadjuvant cycles, real-world practice varies. We sought to evaluate the influence of increasing pre-operative cycles on survival, accounting for surgical outcomes.

Methods We identified 199 women with newly diagnosed ovarian cancer recommended for neoadjuvant chemotherapy who underwent interval debulking surgery from July 2015 to December 2018. Non-parametric tests were used to compare clinical characteristics by neoadjuvant cycles. The Kaplan–Meier method was used to estimate differences in progression-free and overall survival. The log-rank test was used to assess the relationship of covariates to outcome.

Results The median number of neoadjuvant cycles was 4 (range 3–8), with 56 (28%) women receiving ≥5 cycles. Compared with those receiving 3 or 4, women with ≥5 neoadjuvant cycles received fewer or no post-operative cycles (p<0.001) but had no other differences in clinical factors (p>0.05). Complete gross resection rates were similar among those receiving 3, 4, and ≥5 neoadjuvant cycles (68.5%, 70%, and 71.4%, respectively, p=0.96). There were no significant differences in progression-free or overall survival when comparing 3 versus 4 neoadjuvant cycles. However, more cycles (≥5 vs 4) were associated with worse progression-free survival, even after adjustment for BRCA status and complete gross resection (HR 2.20, 95% CI 1.45 to 3.33, p<0.001), and worse overall survival, even after adjustment for histology, response on imaging, and complete gross resection rates (HR 2.78, 95% CI 1.37 to 5.63, p=0.016). The most common reason for receiving ≥5 cycles was extent of disease requiring more neoadjuvant chemotherapy.

Conclusions Despite maximal cytoreduction, patients receiving ≥5 neoadjuvant cycles have a poorer prognosis than those receiving 3–4 cycles. Future studies should focus on reducing surgical morbidity and optimizing novel therapies in this high-risk group.

  • ovarian cancer

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Footnotes

  • Twitter @VanceBroach

  • Contributors YLL: Concept and design; acquisition, analysis and interpretation of data; drafting of manuscript; critical revision of manuscript; final approval of manuscript; takes responsibility for all aspects of the work. QCZ, AI: Analysis and interpretation of data; statistical analysis; critical revision of manuscript; final approval of manuscript; takes responsibility for all aspects of the work. DSC, OZ, YS, GG, VB, RO'C, JAK, RG: Interpretation of data; critical revision of manuscript; final approval of manuscript; takes responsibility for all aspects of the work. CAA: Concept and design; drafting of manuscript; critical revision of manuscript; final approval of manuscript; takes responsibility for all aspects of the work. WT: Concept and design; supervision; drafting of manuscript; critical revision of manuscript; final approval of manuscript; takes responsibility for all aspects of the work. NRA-R: Concept and design; interpretation of data; drafting of manuscript; critical revision of manuscript; final approval of manuscript; takes responsibility for all aspects of the work. KLR: Concept and design; supervision; acquisition, analysis and interpretation of data; drafting of manuscript; critical revision of manuscript; final approval of manuscript; takes responsibility for all aspects of the work.

  • Funding This study was funded in part through the NIH/NCI Support Grant P30 CA008748.

  • Competing interests None declared.

  • Patient consent for publication Not required.

  • Provenance and peer review Not commissioned; externally peer reviewed.

  • Data availability statement All data relevant to the study are included in the article or uploaded as supplementary information.

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