One hundred and twenty-seven patients with leiomyosarcoma (LSS) or endometrial stromal sarcoma (ESS) were treated at the Norwegian Radium Hospital during the 10-year period 1976–1985. After a review of the histologic slides 14 of the original tumors were reclassified, three as carcinomas and in 11 cases no malignant criteria were found. Five-year survival was 67% and 39% for ESS and LSS, respectively. Malignancy grade was the most powerful prognostic criterion in patients who were considered radically treated with surgery. Patients with grade 1 and 2 tumors had a prognosis similar to patients with endometrial carcinoma in contrast to the very gloomy outlook for patients with grade 3 and 4 (5-year survival 33%). For ESS the mitotic index also influenced the outcome. Despite widespread use of chemotherapy there is no clear indication that the prognosis for patients with the more aggressive types of sarcoma has improved in the period studied.
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