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Secondary cytoreductive surgery in recurrent uterine leiomyosarcoma: a multi-institutional study


Introduction Uterine leiomyosarcoma (uLMS) represents a rare gynecological malignancy with high incidence of recurrence. Evidence in literature about the management of recurrent uLMS is limited, and the role of secondary cytoreduction has been evaluated in small and heterogeneous populations. The objective of this study is to assess the prognostic role of secondary cytoreductive surgery and its related complications in a large and homogeneous group of patients.

Methods All consecutive patients who underwent surgery for recurrent uLMS between 01/2010-01/2018 at four Italian tertiary referral centers, were included. Relevant demographic and clinico-pathologic data were retrieved. Survival curves were estimated by Kaplan-Meier method and compared by log-rank test. Cox-proportional hazard model was used to assess the effect of the most predictive prognostic variables.

Results 38 patients with recurrent uLMS were treated with secondary cytoreductive surgery in the study period. Recurrence presented as isolated disease in 17 (44.7%) cases. Bowel, bladder and upper abdominal surgery was performed in 50.0%, 18.4% and 28.9% of the cases, respectively. No residual tumor was the final surgical result in 35 (92.1%) patients. Median hospital stay was 7 days (range, 1-24). No women had major intra-operative and 4 (33.3%) had major post-operative complications. No patient died within 30-days from the secondary cytoreduction. Median time to the first cycle of adjuvant chemotherapy was 41-days (range, 29-78). Median recurrence-free survival was 16.0months (95%CI,11.6 to 26.1). 5-year overall survival (OS) was 76% (95%CI,53 to 89%). Time to first recurrence >12months significantly affected OS (p=0.04).

Discussion Secondary cytoreduction in recurrent uLMS often requires complex and extensive surgical procedures. Referral to tertiary centers guarantees low peri-operative morbidity, short length of hospitalization and median time to chemotherapy within the standard of care. Therefore, secondary cytoreduction to no residual disease is an option that may be considered in recurrent uLMS, especially in patients with time to first recurrence >12months.

  • sarcoma
  • neoplasm recurrence, local
  • surgical oncology
  • postoperative complications

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