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Association of human papillomavirus and bacterial vaginosis with increased risk of high-grade squamous intraepithelial cervical lesions
  1. Tamy Tiemi Suehiro1,
  2. Natália Malaguti1,
  3. Edilson Damke1,
  4. Nelson Shozo Uchimura1,
  5. Fabrícia Gimenes2,
  6. Raquel Pantarotto Souza1,
  7. Vânia Ramos Sela da Silva1 and
  8. Marcia Edilaine Lopes Consolaro1
  1. 1 Department of Clinical Analysis and Biomedicine, Clinical Cytology Laboratory, State University of Maringá (UEM), Paraná, Brazil
  2. 2 Department of Medicine, State University of Maringá, Paraná, Brazil
  1. Correspondence to Marcia Edilaine Lopes Consolaro, Department of Clinical Analysis and Biomedicine, Clinical Cytology Laboratory, Universidade Estadual de Maringá (UEM), Paraná 87020-900, Brazil; melconsolaro{at}gmail.com

Abstract

Objective To assess the rates of co-infections between human papillomavirus (HPV) and 13 key markers of bacterial vaginosis in cervical samples by multiplex polymerase chain reaction in a population with a high rate of abnormal cytology and a positive HPV test.

Methods The study included a total of 213 women aged 18–72 years screened using Papanicolaou smears for determining cervical abnormalities and for HPV and bacterial vaginosis by single-target and multiplex polymerase chain reaction.

Results A total of 83 (39%) women were negative for intraepithelial lesion or malignancy cytology and 130 (61%) had abnormal cytology. HPV-DNA prevalence was 69.9% and bacterial vaginosis was 72.7 %. Co-infections between bacterial vaginosis with HPV-DNA and high-risk HPV were associated with an increased risk for squamous intraepithelial lesions of low-grade cytology and high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions plus cervical cancer. The most frequent bacterial vaginosis agent was Gardnerella vaginalis (33.8%), and co-infection with HPV-DNA and high-risk HPV increased the risk for squamous intraepithelial lesions of low grade cytology and high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions plus cervical cancer. Co-infection between Megasphaera type I and high-risk HPV increased the risk for high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions plus cervical cancer.

Conclusions Our results reinforce the hypothesis that some bacterial vaginosis agents may play a role as co-factors in HPV-mediated cervical carcinogenesis, at least in some populations.

  • squamous cervical cancer
  • HPV
  • co-factors
  • bacterial vaginosis
  • risk
  • HSIL

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Footnotes

  • TTS and NálM contributed equally.

  • Funding This study was supported by by the Fundação Araucária de Apoio ao Desenvolvimento Científico e Tecnológico, Paraná State Government, and Coordenação de Aperfeiçoamento de Pessoal de Nível superior (CAPES), Brazilian Government.

  • Competing interests None declared.

  • Provenance and peer review Not commissioned, externally peer reviewed.

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