Objective The aim of this study was to investigate the prognostic significance of pretreatment and posttreatment lymphopenia in locally advanced squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) cervical cancer patients treated with definitive chemoradiotherapy (ChRT).
Methods Data from 95 patients with SCC were retrospectively analyzed. Relationships between pretreatment or posttreatment lymphopenia and patient or tumor characteristics, and overall survival (OS) and disease-free survival (DFS) were evaluated.
Results Median follow-ups for the entire cohort and survivors were 68 months (range, 3–133 months) and 88 months (range, 22–133 months), respectively. Ten patients (11%) exhibited pretreatment lymphopenia, whereas 58 patients (61%) exhibited posttreatment lymphopenia. Median pretreatment total lymphocyte counts decreased from 2029 cells/μL to 506 cells/μL 2 months after ChRT (P < 0.001). The 5-year OS and DFS rates were significantly higher in patients without pretreatment lymphopenia compared with patients with pre-retreatment lymphopenia (61% vs 20% [P < 0.001], 55% vs 20% [P < 0.001]). Patients without posttreatment lymphopenia had significantly higher 5-year OS and DFS rates than their counterparts (70% vs 46% [P = 0.02], 70% vs 39% [P = 0.004]). Complete response (CR) was observed in significantly fewer patients with pretreatment lymphopenia than in those without, after ChRT. Patients with posttreatment lymphopenia had higher rates of lymph node metastasis (P = 0.001) and lower posttreatment CR rates (P = 0.01) versus patients without posttreatment lymphopenia. In univariate analysis, International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics stage, tumor size, lymph node metastasis, and treatment response were prognostic for OS and DFS. In multivariate analysis, pretreatment lymphopenia, lymph node metastasis, and treatment response were independent predictors of OS and DFS. Age was predictive of OS. Tumor size was prognostic for DFS.
Conclusions Pretreatment lymphopenia and posttreatment lymphopenia are associated with worse treatment response in patients given ChRT for cervical SCC. Pretreatment lymphopenia is predictive for OS and DFS. Therapeutic strategies including pretreatment or posttreatment immune preservation or modulation may improve response rates and survival in women with cervical SCC.
- Cervical cancer
- Hematological parameters
- Prognostic factor
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The authors declare no conflicts of interest.