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Trends of Gynecological Cancers in Turkey: Toward Europe or Asia?
  1. Murat Gultekin, MD*,
  2. Irem Kucukyildiz, MD,
  3. Mujdegul Zayifoglu Karaca, MD,
  4. Selin Dundar, STAT, MSc,
  5. Guledal Boztas, MD,
  6. Semra Hatice Turan, MD,
  7. Ezgi Hacikamiloglu, MD and
  8. Bekir Keskinkilic, MD
  1. * Faculty of Medicine, Division of Gynecologic Oncology, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Hacettepe University; and
  2. Department of Cancer Control, Public Health Institute, Turkish Ministry of Health, Ankara, Turkey.
  1. Address correspondence and reprint requests to Murat Gultekin, MD, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Hacettepe University, Hacettepe Mahallesi, 06230 Sihhiye, Ankara, Turkey. E-mail: mrtgultekin{at}


Objective The aim of this study was to evaluate nationwide gynecological cancer trends in Turkey.

Methods National cancer registry data (2009–2013) of Turkish Ministry of Health were evaluated. Ovarian, cervical, endometrial, vulvar, vaginal, and tubal cancers are evaluated with respect to age of diagnosis, incidence rates within years, stage, histological distributions, and mortality rates. Data were collected from active cancer registry centers, which increased from 23% in 2009 to 47.5% coverage of the whole population by 2012, and mortality data (2010–2015) were obtained from the Turkish Statistical Institute.

Results A total of 16,023 gynecological cancers were evaluated among 116,940 female patients with cancer (13.7%). Average incidence for gynecological cancers was 22.7 of 100,000, representing 8437 total new cases annually. Incidence changes within time were not statistically significant, when evaluated for each tumor type. Estimated risk of gynecological cancer development before the age of 80 years was 3.08% (95% confidence interval, 3.07–3.09). The most common gynecological cancers were uterine corpus cancers, which were followed by ovarian and cervical carcinomas. Ovarian and uterine cancer incidences were closer to European levels rather than Asian countries, whereas cervical cancer incidence was extremely low. Gynecological cancers constituted an important fraction of cancer-related mortality in women by comprising approximately 10.35% of cancer-related deaths. Mortality rates due to gynecological cancers did not show a statistically significant increase within years.

Conclusions This is the first national cancer registry report to be published for gynecological cancers by the Turkish Governmental Department. As a result, Turkish gynecological cancer epidemiological data were consistent with the data obtained from European and developed countries rather than Asian countries, except for cervical cancer incidence, which is extremely low.

  • Turkey
  • Gynecological cancers
  • Ovarian
  • Cervical
  • Endometrial cancers

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  • The authors declare no conflicts of interest.