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Follow-up in Gynecological Malignancies: A State of Art
  1. Paolo Zola, MD,
  2. Chiara Macchi, MD,
  3. David Cibula, MD,
  4. Nicoletta Colombo, MD,
  5. Rainer Kimmig, MD,
  6. Tiziano Maggino, MD,
  7. Nicholas Reed, MD and
  8. Vesna Kesic, MD
  1. Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics, University of Turin, Turin, Italy.
  1. Address correspondence and reprint requests to Paolo Zola, MD, Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics, University of Turin, Turin, Italy, Turin, Italy. E-mail: paolo.zola{at}


Objective The main purpose of this article is to explore the current practice for follow-up of gynecological cancer, pointing out the different procedures, to determine the most clinically and cost-effective surveillance strategies after the primary treatment.

Materials and Methods We analyzed the follow up strategies for ovarian, endometrial, and cervical cancer. All of the topics discussed below arose from the “ESGO State of Art Conference—Follow-up in gynaecological malignancies” in Turin, (September 11–13, 2014;

Results Physical but these practices should be integrated with biomarkers or imaging strategies. Currently, most recommendations about follow-up are based on retrospective studies and expert opinion, and there is some disagreement on surveillance strategies due to lack of evidence-based knowledge.

Conclusions All surveillance procedures should be evidence-based with a clearly defined purpose: there is a need for prospective studies to compare the effectiveness of different follow-up regimens measuring overall survival, detection of recurrence, quality of life (QoL), and costs as outcomes.

  • Ovarian cancer
  • Cervical cancer
  • Endometrial cancer
  • Follow-up
  • State of art

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  • The authors declare no conflicts of interest.