Objective Uterine leiomyosarcoma (ULMS) is a rare gynecologic malignancy characterized by a poor prognosis due to a high rate of local and metastatic recurrences. Chemotherapy with doxorubicin or ifosfamide or both is associated with a 10% to 30% objective response rate. We report a monocentric experience with doxorubicin, cisplatin, and ifosfamide (API) combination in the setting of multimodal treatment of advanced or metastatic ULMS.
Patients and Methods This monocentric retrospective study included patients with metastatic or locally advanced ULMS with a physiological age younger than 65 years treated in first line with a multimodal aggressive approach with API chemotherapy. Treatment consisted of doxorubicin 50 mg/m2 d1, ifosfamide 3 g/m2 per day d1d2 plus mesna, cisplatin 75 mg/m2 d3, plus G-CSF; every 3 weeks up to 6 cycles. Surgery, radiation therapy, or radiofrequency ablation therapy of metastatic sites was associated whenever possible.
Results Thirty-eight patients received API for metastatic or locally advanced ULMS. Median age was 51 years (40–64 years); 4 (11%) patients were treated for a locally advanced disease and 34 (89%) for metastatic disease. Sixteen patients responded (4 complete responses+12 partial responses) among 33 evaluable patients (objective response rate, 48%); 8 and 9 patients had, respectively, stable and progressive disease. Twelve patients had surgeries with 9 surgical complete responses and 3 surgical partial responses. Median progression-free and overall survival in the whole population were 9.8 and 27 months, respectively. Main grade 3 – 4 toxicities in 38 patients were neutropenia (74%), thrombocytopenia (60%), anemia (55%), fatigue (18%), and vomiting (13%). Febrile neutropenia was observed in 37% of patients.
Conclusions Despite the toxicity observed, API is an effective treatment which compares favorably with other first-line therapies for patients with metastatic or advanced ULMS.
- Multimodal therapy
- Uterine leiomyosarcoma
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The authors declare no conflicts of interest.