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Gynecologic Cancer InterGroup (GCIG) Consensus Review for Carcinoid Tumors of the Ovary
  1. Nicholas Simon Reed, MBBS*,
  2. Eva Gomez-Garcia, MD,
  3. Dolores Gallardo-Rincon, MD,
  4. Brigitte Barrette, MD§,
  5. Klaus Baumann, MD,
  6. Michael Friedlander, MBChB, FRACP, PhD,
  7. Ganessan Kichenadasse, MD#,
  8. Jae-Weon Kim, MD**,
  9. Domenica Lorusso, MD,,
  10. Mansoor Raza Mirza, MD, and
  11. Isabelle Ray-Coquard, MD, PhD§§
  1. *Beatson Oncology Centre, Glasgow, Scotland, United Kingdom (EORTC);
  2. Centro Oncologico Estatal, ISSEMYM, Toluca de Lerdo, Mexico (GICOM);
  3. Instituto Nacional de Cancerología, Tlalpan, Mexico (GICOM);
  4. §Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN (GOG);
  5. UKGM, Marburg, Germany (AGO);
  6. NHMRC Clinical Trials Centre, New South Wales, Australia (ANZGOG);
  7. #Flinders Centre for Innovation in Cancer, South Australia (ANZGOG);
  8. **Seoul National University of Medicine, Seoul, Korea (KGOG);
  9. ††Fondazione IRCCS National Cancer Institute of Milan, Milan, Italy (MaNGO);
  10. ‡‡Rigshospitalet, Copenhagen, Denmark (NSGO); and
  11. §§Centre Leon Berard, Lyon, France (GINECO).
  1. Address correspondence and reprint requests to Nicholas Simon Reed, MBBS, Beatson West of Scotland Cancer Centre, 1053 Great Western Rd, Glasgow, G12 0YN, Scotland, United Kingdom. E-mail: nick.reed{at}


Abstract Neuroendocrine tumors (NETs) are a heterogeneous group of neoplasms most commonly occurring in the gastrointestinal tract or the lungs. More frequent are gastrointestinal tumors, but over the past 30 years, there have been a number of small series or anecdotal case reports on ovarian NETs. Neuroendocrine tumors in the gynecologic tract are uncommon and account for about 2% of all gynecologic malignancies but may also be metastatic from other sites. They require a multimodality therapeutic approach determined by the extent of disease and the primary organ of involvement. Pathological diagnosis is critical to guide therapy. Surgery is the cornerstone of treatment for localized disease. There have been many new developments for treatment of advanced NETs including somatostatin analogs, hepatic artery embolization, chemotherapy, interferons, mammalian target of rapamycin inhibitors and radiolabeled somatostatin analogs. Given the rarity and lack of level I evidence, this is by nature more of a guidance and recommendation for management of these rare tumors until we can mount international studies.

  • Ovarian
  • Carcinoid
  • Neuroendocrine
  • Somatostatin analogs

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  • The authors declare no conflicts of interest.