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Gynecologic Cancer InterGroup (GCIG) Consensus Review for Vulvovaginal Melanomas
  1. Mario M. Leitao, MD*,
  2. Xi Cheng, MD,
  3. Anne L. Hamilton, MD,§,
  4. Nadeem A. Siddiqui, MD,
  5. Ina Jurgenliemk-Schulz, MD, PhD#,
  6. Sven Mahner, MD**,
  7. Elisabeth Åvall-Lundqvist, MD, PhD,,
  8. Kidong Kim, MD, and
  9. Gilles Freyer, MD, PhD§§
  1. *Gynecology Service, Department of Surgery, Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, New York, NY, USA;
  2. Fudan University Shanghai Cancer Center, Shanghai, China;
  3. Peter MacCallum Cancer Centre, Melbourne, Australia;
  4. §Royal Women’s Hospital, Melbourne, Australia;
  5. University of Melbourne, Melbourne, Australia;
  6. Glasgow Royal Infirmary, Gynaecology Administration Block, Glasgow, Scotland;
  7. #Department of Radiation Oncology, University Medical Centre Utrecht, Utrecht, The Netherlands;
  8. **Department of Gynecology, University Medical Center Hamburg-Eppendorf, Hamburg, Germany;
  9. ††Department of Oncology-Pathology, Karolinska Institute, Stockholm, Sweden;
  10. ‡‡Department of Obstetrics & Gynecology, Seoul National University Bundang Hospital, Seoul, Korea; and
  11. §§Service d’Oncologie Médicale, Centre Hospitalier Lyon-Sud, Lyon, France.
  1. Address correspondence and reprint requests to Mario M. Leitao, Jr, MD, Gynecology Service, Department of Surgery, Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, 1275 York Avenue, New York, NY 10065. E-mail: leitaom{at}


Abstract Vulvovaginal melanomas are rare tumors that account for a small fraction of all vulvovaginal cancers. Biologically, they seem to be similar to mucosal and acral melanomas of other sites. There are limited data specific to vulvovaginal melanomas, especially regarding systemic therapies. Most treatment decisions are based on extrapolation from data regarding cutaneous melanomas of other sites. It is reasonable to follow already established guidelines from other professional groups and societies. Outcomes tend to be worse compared with cutaneous melanomas likely because of the later presentation and physical biological characteristics of these tumors.

  • GCIC consensus
  • Vulvar melanoma
  • Vaginal melanoma

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  • The authors declare no conflicts of interest.