Objectives This study aimed to identify prognostic factors influencing the outcome of recurrent or persistent uterine leiomyosarcoma (ULMS).
Methods All patients with recurrent or persistent ULMS who underwent treatment at the participating institutions between January 2000 and December 2010 were identified from the tumor registry. The Kaplan-Meier method was used to generate overall survival data. Factors predictive of outcome were compared using the log-rank test and Cox proportional hazards model.
Results One hundred fifteen (68.8%) patients who had recurrent/persistent disease were identified, 40 (34.8%) had persistent disease, and 75 (65.2%) had a recurrence. Median follow-up time was 24.9 months. The 5-year postrelapse survival rate was 15% and was not significantly different between women with recurrent or persistent disease (16% vs 13%; P = 0.1). Variables identified affecting the 5-year postrelapse survival rate included low number of mitosis at the time of diagnosis (<25, 25% vs 5%; P = 0.002), time to relapse from original diagnosis (≤6 vs >6 months, 8% vs 22%; P = 0.003)), and surgical treatment (17% vs 12%; P = 0.01). Age, stage, chemotherapy at time of original diagnosis or at the time of relapse, site of recurrence, and single versus multiple sites of recurrence were not associated with survival. In a multivariate Cox regression model, only low number of mitosis (hazard ratio, 0.5; 95% confidence interval, 0.3–0.8, P = 0.02) was identified as a predictor of overall survival.
Conclusions The prognosis of patients with recurrent/persistent ULMS is, in general, poor. Women who have low number of mitosis at the time of diagnosis seemed to have better postrelapse survival.
- Uterine leiomyosarcoma
- Uterine cancer
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The authors declare no conflicts of interest.
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