Objective Growing evidence suggests that fertility-preserving treatment is feasible for young women with early-stage, low-grade endometrial carcinoma. However, published data on their long-term outcomes and prognostic factors remain scanty. We aimed to investigate the outcomes of young women receiving fertility-preserving treatment.
Methods Between 1991 and 2010, the outcomes of young women with grade 1 endometrioid endometrial carcinoma at presumed stage IA (without myometrial invasion) who underwent fertility-preserving treatment of megestrol acetate 160 mg/d with or without other hormonal agents were retrospectively analyzed.
Results We identified 37 eligible patients (median age, 32 years; range, 18–40 years). The median follow-up time was 78.6 months (range, 19.1–252.8 months). Complete response (CR) lasting more than 6 months was achieved in 30 (81.1%) women. Responders were significantly younger than nonresponders (P = 0.032). Of the 30 women who had a CR, 15 (50.0%) had disease recurrence. The 5-, 10-, and 15-year cumulative recurrence-free survival rates were 51.0%, 51.0%, and 34.0%, respectively. Notably, those recurred were significantly older (P = 0.003), and the time to CR was significantly longer (P = 0.043) than those without recurrence. One patient developed late recurrences at 156 months, and 2 patients developed ovarian metastasis (6 and 137 months from diagnosis). All the patients are currently alive.
Conclusions This study demonstrates the feasibility of high-dose megestrol acetate–based therapy for fertility preservation. The substantial risk of late recurrences highlights the need for long-term follow-up studies of large sample sizes with in-depth tumor and host molecular signatures.
- Endometrial carcinoma
- Megestrol acetate
- Young age
- Fertility-preserving treatment
- Long-term follow-up
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Supported by grants from the National Science Council–Taiwan (NSC101-2314-B-182-043 to C.-J.W.) and the Chang Gung Medical Foundation (CMRPG391442 and BMRPG3A0011 to C.-H.L.).
The authors declare no conflicts of interest.