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Mathematical Models to Discriminate Between Benign and Malignant Adnexal Masses: Potential Diagnostic Improvement Using Ovarian HistoScanning
  1. Evelien Vaes, MSc*,
  2. Ranjit Manchanda, MRCOG,
  3. Rina Nir, MSc,
  4. Dror Nir, PhD,
  5. Harry Bleiberg, PhD§,
  6. Philippe Autier, MD,
  7. Usha Menon, FRCOG and
  8. Annie Robert, PhD*
  1. * Université catholique de Louvain, Institut de Recherche Experimentale et Clinique, Epidemiology and Biostatistics Unit, Brussels, Belgium;
  2. Gyneacoligical Oncology, UCL EGA Institute for Women's Health, London, UK;
  3. Advanced Medical Diagnostics, Waterloo, Belgium;
  4. § Jules Bordet Institute, Brussels, Belgium; and
  5. International Prevention Reseacrh Institute, Lyon, France.
  1. Address correspondence and reprint requests to Evelien Vaes, MSc, Université catholique de Louvain, IREC-IRSS-EPID 30.58, Clos Chapelle-aux-champs, 30, BE-1200 Brussels, Belgium. E-mail: evelien.vaes{at}


Purpose: Accurate preoperative clinical assessment of adnexal masses can optimize outcomes by ensuring appropriate and timely surgery. This article addresses whether a new technology, ovarian HistoScanning, has an additional diagnostic value in mathematical models developed for the differential diagnosis of adnexal masses.

Patients and Methods: Transvaginal sonography-based morphological variables were obtained through blinded analysis of archived images in 199 women enrolled in a prospective study to assess the performance of ovarian HistoScanning. Logistic regression (LR) and neural network (NN) models including these variables and clinical and patient data along with the HistoScanning score (HSS) (range, 0-125; based on mathematical algorithms) were developed in a learning set (60% patients). The remaining 40% patients (evaluation set) were used to assess model performance.

Results: Of all morphological and clinical variables tested, serum CA-125, presence of a solid component, and HSS were most significant and used to develop the LR model. The NN model included all variables. The novel variable, HSS, offered significant improvement in the LR and NN models' performance. The LR and NN models in an independent evaluation set were found to have area under the receiver operating characteristic curve = 0.97 (95% confidence interval [CI], 94-99) and 0.93 (95% CI, 88-98), sensitivities = 83% (95% CI, 71%-91%) and 80% (95% CI, 67%-89%), and specificities = 98% (95% CI, 89%-99%) and 86% (95% CI, 72%-95%), respectively. In addition, these models showed an improved performance when compared with 3 other existing models (all P < 0.05).

Conclusions: This initial report shows a clear benefit of including ovarian HistoScanning into mathematical models used for discriminating benign from malignant ovarian masses. These models may be specifically helpful to the less experienced examiner. Future research should assess performance of these models in prospective clinical trials in different populations.

  • Differential diagnosis
  • Ovarian cancer
  • Multivariate mathematical models
  • HistoScanning
  • Ultrasound

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