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Risk Factors for Persistent Low Bladder Compliance After Radical Hysterectomy
  1. Yasunari Oda, MD*,
  2. Yukiharu Todo, MD, PhD,
  3. Sharon Hanley, MA (Hon),
  4. Masayoshi Hosaka, MD*,
  5. Mahito Takeda, MD, PhD*,
  6. Hidemichi Watari, MD, PhD*,
  7. Masanori Kaneuchi, MD, PhD*,
  8. Masataka Kudo, MD, PhD* and
  9. Noriaki Sakuragi, MD, PhD*
  1. * Department of Gynecology, Hokkaido University Graduate School of Medicine, Sapporo, Japan;
  2. Division of Gynecologic Oncology, National Hospital Organization Hokkaido Cancer Center, Sapporo, Japan; and
  3. Department of Public Health, Hokkaido University Graduate School of Medicine, Sapporo, Japan.
  1. Address correspondence and reprint requests to Yukiharu Todo, MD, PhD, Division of Gynecologic Oncology, National Hospital Organization, Hokkaido Cancer Center, 4-2, Kikusui, Shiroishi-Ku, Sapporo 003-0804, Japan. E-mail: yukiharu{at}


Introduction: Bladder compliance deteriorates immediately after radical hysterectomy (RH), and low bladder compliance causes upper urinary tract dysfunctions such as progressive hydronephrosis. The aims of this study were to clarify risk factors for persistent low bladder compliance after RH and to propose a postsurgical management protocol for improved recovery of bladder function.

Methods: A total of 113 consecutive patients who underwent RH with the intention to preserve the pelvic autonomic nerve system were included in this prospective study. Urodynamic studies were performed according to a planned schedule: presurgery and 1, 3, 6, and 12 months after surgery. Autonomic nerves were preserved at least unilaterally in 95 (84.1%) of the 113 patients, but this was not possible in the remaining 18 patients (15.9%). Postoperative adjuvant radiation therapy (RT) was performed in 14 patients. The relationships between bladder compliance and various clinical factors were investigated using logistic regression analysis. Covariates included age, nerve-sparing procedure, adjuvant RT, and maximum abdominal pressure during the voiding phase. Bladder compliance at 12 months after surgery was used as the dependent variable.

Results: Radical hysterectomy with a non-nerve-sparing procedure (odds ratio [OR], 3.4; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.1-11.0), adjuvant RT (OR, 10.3; 95% CI, 2.5-43.5), and voiding with abdominal pressure at 3 months after surgery (OR, 2.9; 95% CI, 1.1-7.2) were risk factors for persistent low bladder compliance.

Conclusions: A nerve-sparing procedure and prohibition of voiding with abdominal strain during the acute and subacute phases after RH resulted in improved recovery of bladder compliance. Adjuvant RT should be avoided in patients who undergo nerve-sparing RH if an alternative postoperative strategy is possible.

  • Radical hysterectomy
  • Bladder dysfunction
  • Bladder compliance
  • Urodynamic study
  • Postsurgical management

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  • The authors declare no conflict of interest.