Background: The most common types of cervical cancer are squamous cell carcinoma, adenocarcinoma, and adenosquamous carcinoma, referred to here collectively as SA cervical cancer. Other types of cervical cancer, referred to here collectively as nonsquamous/nonadenocarcinoma (NSNA) cervical cancer, include neuroendocrine, small cell, clear cell, sarcomatoid, and serous tumors. Anecdotally, NSNA tumors seem to have a worse prognosis than their SA counterparts. We sought to determine whether patients with early-stage NSNA have a worse prognosis than those with early-stage SA cervical cancer.
Methods: We retrospectively reviewed charts of women with stage IA1-IB2 NSNA cervical cancer treated by radical hysterectomy and lymph node staging at M. D. Anderson Cancer Center from 1990 to 2006. The NSNA patients were matched 1:2 to patients with grade 3 SA lesions on the basis of stage, age at diagnosis, tumor size, and date of diagnosis.
Results: Eighteen patients with NSNA primary cervical cancer subtypes (neuroendocrine [n = 7], small cell [n = 5], clear cell [n = 4], papillary serous [n = 1], and sarcomatoid [n = 1]) were matched to 36 patients with grade 3 SA lesions. There were no differences between the 2 groups in age, body mass index, clinical stage, or lesion size. The 2 groups also did not differ with respect to number of nodes resected, lymphovascular space invasion, margin status, lymph node metastasis, or adjuvant radiation therapy or chemotherapy. At a median follow-up of 44 months, median progression-free and overall survivals had not been reached; however, both progression-free survival (P = 0.018) and overall survival (P = 0.028) were worse for the NSNA group. The 5-year progression-free and overall survival rates were 61.2% and 67.6%, respectively, for the NSNA group, compared with 90.1% and 88.3%, respectively, for the SA group.
Conclusions: Patients with early-stage NSNA cervical cancer undergoing radical hysterectomy and pelvic lymphadenectomy have a worse prognosis than patients with grade 3 SA lesions. Patients with NSNA tumors may require a multimodality approach to their cancer care.
- Small cell
- Clear cell
- Radical hysterectomy
- Cervical cancer
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