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Seroprevalence of Human Papillomavirus 6, 11, 16, and 18 in Young Primiparous Women in Sao Paulo, Brazil
  1. Cristina Helena Rama, MD*,,
  2. Luisa Lina Villa, PhD,
  3. Sonia Pagliusi, PhD§,
  4. Maria Antonieta Avilla Andreoli, BSc,
  5. Maria Cecilia Costa, BSc,
  6. Patricia Thomann, PhD,
  7. Adhemar Longatto-Filho, PhD,** and
  8. Jose Eluf-Neto, PhD
  1. * Department of Family Planning, Hospital Maternidade Leonor Mendes de Barros, Sao Paulo, Brazil;
  2. Departamento de Medicina Preventiva, Faculdade de Medicina, Universidade de São Paulo, Sao Paulo, Brazil;
  3. Virology Department of Ludwig Institute for Cancer Research, Sao Paulo, Brazil;
  4. § Clinton Health Access Initiative, Geneva, Switzerland;
  5. Technical Support Department of Qiagen do Brazil, Sao Paulo, Brazil;
  6. Departamento de Patologia e Laboratorio de Investigacao Medica (LIM) 14, Faculdade de Medicina, Universidade de São Paulo, Sao Paulo, Brazil; and
  7. ** Life and Health Sciences Research Institute (ICVS),School of Health Sciences, University of Minho, Braga, Portugal.
  1. Address correspondence and reprint requests to Cristina Helena Rama, MD, Hospital Maternidade Leonor Mendes de Barros, Av Celso Garcia, 2477, 03015-000 Belenzinho São Paulo, SP, Brazil. E-mail: crisrama{at}


Introduction: Data on epidemiology of HPV infection are needed for the development of human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine recommendations, especially in countries where HPV vaccination is not yet included in public vaccination programs. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of serum antibodies to HPV types 6, 11, 16, and 18 and associated factors among young women after birth of the first child.

Methods: This cross-sectional study was carried out in a large public maternity hospital in Sao Paulo, Brazil. Three hundred one women aged 15 to 24 years who gave birth to their first child were recruited between 43 and 60 days after delivery. Seroprevalence was performed using a type-specific enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay based on HPV Late protein 1 viruslike particles. The association of seroreactivity with these 4 HPV types with selected demographic and behavioral factors was assessed by Generalized Linear Model analysis.

Results: Fifty-eight (19.3%) women (95% confidence interval, 15.0%-24.2%) had antibodies to any of the 4 viruslike particles tested. The overall seroprevalence rates of the HPV types were: HPV16, 9.0%; HPV18, 7.0%; and HPV 6+11, 7.7%, which are targeted by the HPV prophylactic vaccines. In the multivariate analysis, only age (inversely, P = 0.044 for trend) and previous sexually transmitted disease (P = 0.008) were 2 factors independently associated with HPV seropositivity.

Conclusions: These data offer additional information on the epidemiology of HPV in a group of young Brazilian women after first delivery and contribute to establish a baseline of HPV seroprevalence against which post-HPV vaccine era seroprevalence can be compared.

  • HPV serology
  • VLP antibodies
  • Cervical cancer
  • HPV immunization
  • Sexually transmitted disease

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