Objectives: The growing prevalence of endometrial cancer has made it necessary to characterize its molecular and clinical properties and to develop new strategies in treating this disease. A number of molecular and genetic events have been observed in endometrial cancers, which have enabled us to have a better understanding of the biology and development of the disease. For example, PTEN/AKT pathway and its downstream targets and the mTOR (mammalian target of rapamycin) pathway have been shown to play an important role in endometrial cancer pathogenesis. Novel therapies, such as drugs that target cellular pathways, for example, mTOR inhibitor deforolimus, an analog of rapamycin, have been developed and used in clinical trials to treat women with progressive endometrial cancer. This review outlines the data on the molecular and translational aspects of endometrial cancers and the risk factors.
Methods: A literature search was performed using PubMed and OvidSP entering the words endometrial cancer and molecular characteristics and endometrial cancer and risk factors.
Results: An evidence-based summary of the data on the molecular and translational aspects of endometrial cancers and risk factors was obtained.
Conclusions: Clear understanding of the cellular and molecular pathways and risk factors involved in endometrial tumorigenesis may allow us to identify women at risk of developing endometrial cancer and possibly intervene to prevent cancer development.
- Endometrial cancer
- Molecular characteristics
- Risk factors
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