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Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Uterine Cervix Producing Granulocyte Colony-Stimulating Factor: A Report of 4 Cases and a Review of the Literature
  1. Yuri Matsumoto, MD*,
  2. Seiji Mabuchi, MD, PhD*,
  3. Miho Muraji, MD*,
  4. Eiichi Morii, MD, PhD and
  5. Tadashi Kimura, MD, PhD*
  1. *Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, and
  2. Department of Pathology, Osaka University Graduate School of Medicine. 2-2 Yamadaoka, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 Japan.
  1. Address correspondence and reprint requests to Seiji Mabuchi, MD, PhD, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Osaka University Graduate School of Medicine, 2-2 Yamadaoka, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 Japan. E-mail: smabuchi{at}


Granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF)-producing malignant tumor has been reported to occur in various organs, and most of which has been associated with poor clinical outcome. However, because of the rarity of the reported cases, information regarding the G-CSF-producing gynecological malignancies is limited. We report 4 cases of G-CSF-producing cervical cancers. At initial diagnosis, all of the 4 patients exhibited marked leukocytosis without an obvious sign of infection. Of the 4 patients, 3 had their disease initially treated with definitive radiotherapy, and one was treated with radical surgery. Despite the aggressive treatments, all of these patients experienced recurrences within 6 months. In all cases, the white blood cell count returned to the normal range in response to the initial treatment and then increased again with recurrences. Based on the facts that the tumor cells were positive for G-CSF, the serum level of G-CSF was elevated, and their clinical course correlated well with the white blood cell count, we concluded that these tumors were G-CSF-producing cancers. All patients died from disease progression in less than 15 months. These cases strongly indicate the aggressive nature of the G-CSF-producing cervical cancer.

  • G-CSF
  • Squamous cell carcinoma
  • Cervical cancer
  • Leukocytosis
  • Radiotherapy

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  • This work was supported in part by Grant-in-aid for Young Scientist, No. 21791554 from the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science, and Technology in Japan.

  • Conflict of interest statement: The authors declare that they have no conflict of interests.