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Cytokines (TH1 and TH2) in Patients With Advanced Cervical Cancer Undergoing Neoadjuvant Chemoradiation: Correlation With Treatment Response
  1. Alpana Sharma, PhD*,
  2. Medha Rajappa, MD,
  3. Abhigyan Satyam, MSc* and
  4. Manoj Sharma, MD
  1. *Department of Biochemistry,
  2. Department of Ocular Biochemistry, All India Institute of Medical Sciences; and
  3. Department of Radiotherapy, Maulana Azad Medical College and Associated Hospitals, New Delhi, India.
  1. Address correspondence and reprint requests to Alpana Sharma, PhD, Department of Biochemistry, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, Ansari Nagar, New Delhi-110 029, India. E-mail: dralpanasharma{at}


Background and Objectives: Host factors are critical in regulating tumor growth, and cytokines that modulate immunological control may be of importance in cervical cancer. To study this, the cytokines were measured in peripheral blood mononuclear cells in women with cervical cancer, before and after neoadjuvant chemoradiation, and assessed their correlation with therapeutic response.

Methods: Ninety patients with advanced cervical cancer and 90 healthy controls were enrolled, and human papillomavirus status was determined. Cytokines were estimated by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay in pretreatment samples after chemotherapy, brachyradiation, and after follow-up. Response to therapy was assessed during and after therapy and after 1 and 3 years of follow-up.

Results: Pretreatment levels of type 1 cytokines (IL-2 and IFN-γ) showed significant decrease, whereas type 2 cytokines (IL-4 and IL-10) showed significant increase in patients versus controls. After chemotherapy, a mild increase in type 1 cytokine levels was observed in complete responders versus partial/nonresponders, which became highly significant after completion of therapy and remained significant during follow-up. A slight decrease in type 2 cytokine levels was seen in complete responders versus partial/nonresponders, which remained insignificant for IL-10 even after chemoradiation.

Conclusions: This important finding suggests that pretreatment type 1 cytokine levels and the extent of their change during treatment can predict the therapeutic response to neoadjuvant chemoradiation in advanced cervical cancer.

  • Cytokines
  • Cervical cancer
  • Neoadjuvant chemoradiation
  • Therapeutic response
  • HPV status
  • IL-2
  • IFN-γ
  • IL-4
  • IL-10

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