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Prevalence and Determinants of Metabolic Syndrome and Elevated Framingham Risk Score in Epithelial Ovarian Cancer Survivors: A Controlled Observational Study
  1. Astrid Helene Liavaag, MD*,
  2. Serena Tonstad, MD, PhD,
  3. Are H. Pripp, PhD,
  4. Claes TropÉ, MD, PhD§ and
  5. Anne Dørum, MD, PhD§
  1. *Department of Gynecology, Sørlandet Hospital, Arendal;
  2. Department ofInternal Medicine, Ullevål University Hospital, University of Oslo, Division Ullevaal University Hospital, Oslo;
  3. Biostatistics Unit, Research Services Department, Rikshospitalet University Hospital, Oslo; and
  4. §Department of Gynecological Oncology, The Norwegian Radium Hospital, Rikshospitalet University Hospital, University of Oslo Faculty Division, The Norwegian Radium Hospital, Oslo, Norway.
  1. Address correspondence and reprint requests to Astrid Helene Liavaag, MD, Department of Gynecology, Sørlandet Hospital HF Serviceboks 605, 4809 Arendal, Norway. E-mail: astrid.liavaag{at}


Bilateral oophorectomy has been associated with increased risk of metabolic syndrome (MetS) and coronary heart disease; however, the risk in women oophorectomized for epithelial ovarian cancer has not been studied previously.

Among 287 epithelial ovarian cancer survivors (EOCSs) alive in 2004 and treated with bilateral oophorectomy between 1979 and 2003 at the Norwegian Radium Hospital, 189/287 (66%) participated and 165/189 (87%) provided demographic and health history data and fasting serum samples. Controls were women from the general population. Metabolic syndrome was defined according to the International Diabetes Federation and 2005 Adult Treatment Program III criteria. Framingham risk score assessing the 10-year risk of coronary heart disease was calculated. We found that to be an EOCS was significantly associated with increased risk of MetS (odds ratio, 1.7; 95% confidence interval, 1.1-2.8) but not with Framingham risk score of more than 10% (odds ratio, 0.4; 95% confidence interval, 0.2-1.1) compared with controls. Older age and higher body mass index were also significantly associated with increased risk of MetS, whereas less education and not living with a partner were associated with an increased level in the Framingham risk score. The association between EOCSs and increased risk of MetS may imply that EOCSs can be at higher risk of type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease. In view of the increasing number of EOCSs, these novel findings should be given therapeutic considerations when such patients are followed up by health care professionals.

  • Epithelial ovarian cancer survivors
  • Metabolic syndrome
  • Framingham risk score
  • Coronary heart disease
  • Controlled study

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  • A.H.L. holds a research career grant given by The Norwegian Cancer Society.

  • The authors indicate no potential conflicts of interest.