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Prognostic factors of ovarian granulosa cell tumor: a study of 35 patients and review of the literature
  1. A. Auranen*,
  2. J. Sundström,
  3. J. Ijäs* and
  4. S. Grénman*
  1. * Departments of Obstetrics and Gynecology and
  2. Pathology, Turku University Hospital, Turku, Finland
  1. Address correspondence and reprint requests to: Annika Auranen, MD, PhD, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Turku University Hospital, PB 52 FIN-20521 Turku, Finland. Email: annika.auranen{at}


Ovarian granulosa cell tumors (GCT) are rare tumors with a tendency of late relapse and good prognosis. FIGO stage, tumor size, degree of cellular atypia, and mitotic index have been reported to predict recurrence. The objective of this study is to evaluate treatment practice and prognostic factors of GCT. For this purpose, a detailed review of patient files and histopathologic evaluation of tumor samples, including estimation of growth pattern, presence of Call-Exner bodies, nuclear atypia, mitotic index, and immunohistochemical staining for inhibin and Ki-67 were analyzed. Thirty-five patients had histologically confirmed GCT. Four patients had a simultaneous endometrial adenocarcinoma. Median follow-up time was 135 months (range 19–334 months). Recurrent disease was detected in seven patients. Time from diagnosis to the first recurrence varied from 24 to 141 months. There was no difference in tumor size, nuclear atypia, mitotic index, presence of Call-Exner bodies, or Ki-67 staining between nonrecurred and recurred patients. The only factor associated with risk of recurrence was rupture of the tumor (P< 0.0001), and the only factor associated with overall survival was FIGO stage (P= 0.032). The disease-free and overall survivals were not statistically different between patients treated (N= 18) or not treated (N= 17) with adjuvant therapy. One patient has experienced seven recurrences, has been treated with surgery, radiation therapy, chemotherapy, and hormonal therapy, and is still alive 26 years from diagnosis. FIGO stage and tumor rupture were the only factors associated with the outcome of GCT. Treatment of relapse, even in case of multiple recurrences, is usually worthwhile.

  • granulosa cell tumor
  • prognostic factors
  • risk of relapse

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