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Clinical applications of immunohistochemistry in gynecological malignancies
  1. J. Shutter*,
  2. K. A. Atkins,
  3. K. Ghartey and
  4. T. J. Herzog§
  1. * George Washington University, New York
  2. University of Virginia, New York
  3. New York University, New York
  4. § Columbia University, New York
  1. Address correspondence and reprint requests to: Thomas J. Herzog, MD, 161 Ft. Washington Avenue, Columbia University, New York, NY 10032, USA. Email: th2135{at}


Over the past two decades, immunohistochemical techniques have improved to such a degree that it is now a common adjuvant test to the traditional hematoxylin and eosin–stained histologic sections. It is used in most realms of surgical pathology and can often aid in final diagnosis and, in some cases, prognosis. However, immunohistochemistry (IHC) is not always helpful and many pitfalls to its use exist. Understanding the basics of IHC, its utility and difficulties will aid clinicians in better understanding how diagnoses are rendered. This study reviews the general principles of IHC and demonstrates its utility with several commonly encountered problematic areas in gynecological pathology

  • gynecological malignancies
  • immunohistochemistry
  • pathology

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