Article Text

Download PDFPDF
Candida and squamous (pre)neoplasia of immigrants and Dutch women as established in population‐based cervical screening
  1. M. K. Engberts*,,,
  2. C. F.W Vermeulen§,
  3. B. S.M Verbruggen*,,,
  4. M. Van Haaften,
  5. M. E. Boon*, and
  6. A. P.M Heintz
  1. *Leiden Cytology and Pathology Laboratory, Leiden, The Netherlands
  2. Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Diakonessenhuis, Utrecht, The Netherlands
  3. Department of Gynaecology and Surgical Oncology, University Medical Center Utrecht, Utrecht, The Netherlands
  4. §Department of Gynaecology, Leiden University Medical Center, Leiden, The Netherlands
  5. Stichting Bevolkingsonderzoek Baarmoederhalskanker region West (SBBW), Leiden, The Netherlands
  1. Address correspondence and reprint requests to: Maria Karin (Marian) Engberts, MD, Leiden Cytology and Pathology Laboratory, PO Box 16084, 2301 GB Leiden, The Netherlands. Email: mengberts{at}


The objective of this study was to establish the relationship between Candida vaginalis and (pre)neoplasia and the prevalence of Candida and (pre)neoplasia related to age and ethnicity. Data were collected from 445,671 asymptomatic women invited for mass screening between 1995 and 2002 and coded according to the Dutch cervical smear coding system (KOPAC) with six grades for (pre)neoplastic changes. Prevalence and relative risks (RRs) were established for Candida and squamous abnormalities in Dutch women and four groups of immigrants. The prevalence of Candida is significantly higher in the cohort of 30-year-old women and lower in the cohorts of 45-, 50-, 55-, and 60-year-old women. The RR of having Candida was higher for Surinamese women (1.24; CI 1.08–1.42). Furthermore, the RR of having mild dysplasia was higher for Surinamese women (1.47; CI 1.14–1.89) and for women born in other countries than in The Netherlands, Turkey, and Morocco (1.36; CI 1.13–1.62). No statistically significant relationship between (pre)neoplasia and Candida was observed. C. vaginalis is more frequent among Surinamese women. Presence of Candida is not associated with an increased risk for squamous abnormalities; therefore, women carrying Candida are not at an increased risk of developing cervical cancer.

  • asymptomatic
  • candida
  • cervical cancer
  • ethnicity

Statistics from

Request Permissions

If you wish to reuse any or all of this article please use the link below which will take you to the Copyright Clearance Center’s RightsLink service. You will be able to get a quick price and instant permission to reuse the content in many different ways.